NCERT Class 10 Physics Assignments for Life Processes (Respiration) Board Sample Problems Part 2

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Question 29

What is oxyhemoglobins and how is it formed?

Answer: Oxyhemoglobin is the compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. The hemoglobin pigment (Hb) has an affinity for oxygen. In the lungs, it combines with oxygen and forms oxyhemoglobin.

Question 30

How does carbon dioxide get transported in the blood?

Answer

Carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as bicarbonate ions in the plasma region of the blood.

Question 31

What is inspiration?

Answer

During inspiration, the outer intercostal muscles contract which raises the chest cavity or the ribs. This is accompanied by the lowering of the diaphragm. Together these movements serve to increase the area of the thoracic cavity which reduces the pressure. The air from outside rushes into the lungs

Question 32

What is expiration?

Answer

During the expiration or exhalation, the inner intercostal muscles contract bringing the ribs back to the original position and the diaphragm is also raised back. This reduces the space in the chest cavity and increases the pressure. This expels the air out of the lungs.

Question 33

Define the terms

(a) Lung capacity

(b) Vital capacity.

Answer

Define the terms

Lung capacity

Vital capacity

The maximum air that can be held in the two lungs at any time is called the lung capacity. It is about 6000 ml.

The maximum volume of air that can be exchanged in one breath in and out is called the lung capacity. It is about 5000 ml.

Question 34

Define the terms:

(a) Inspiratory reserve volume

(b) Expiratory reserve volume

Answer

Define the terms

Inspiratory reserve volume

Expiratory reserve volume

The volume of air that can be drawn in after normal inspiration is about 1500ml and is called the inspiratory reserve volume (complemental air).

The volume of air that can be expelled out after a normal expiration is about 1500ml and is called the expiratory reserve volume (supplemental air).

Question 35

What is breathing?

Answer

The mechanism of taking in oxygen and giving out carbon dioxide is called breathing.

Question 36

Breathing and respiration are not synonymous. Why?

Answer

Respiration involves both the mechanical and the bio- chemical processes whereas breathing is only the mechanical or physical process of exchange of gases.

Question 37

What ¡s cellular respiration?

Answer

In the cells, the substrate, often glucose, is broken down into carbon dioxide and water in the presence of oxygen. This process releases energy and involves a series of bio- chemical reactions. This is called cellular respiration.

Question 38: What are the major steps of cellular respiration?

Answer: The major steps of cellular respiration are:

Glycolysis

Krebs’s cycle

Electron Transport Chain

Question 39

What is anaerobic respiration?

Answer

Respiration or breakdown of food in the complete absence of free oxygen is called anaerobic respiration.

Question 40

Name two anaerobes.

Answer

E.Coli and Clostridium tetani are two anaerobes

Question 41

Where do you find anaerobic respiration in animals?

Answer

In animals, anaerobic respiration can be seen ¡n certain skeletal muscle cells when they are short of oxygen. For example, during the period of heavy exercise.

Question 42

What are the types of anaerobic respiration?

Answer

Anaerobic respiration is of two types based on the products formed. Alcoholic Fermentation: It occurs ¡n plants like the yeast (a fungs). It can be represented as follows:

Lactic acid Fermentation: It occurs ¡n animal cells. It can be represented as follows: glucose-2 lactic acid+ 2ATP

During this process, no carbon dioxide ¡s released.

Question 43

Which type of respiration is more efficient- aerobic or anaerobic? Why?

Answer

Aerobic respiration is more efficient as it produces 38ATP molecules for every molecule of glucose used up. Whereas anaerobic respiration yields only 2 ATP molecules for each molecule of glucose

Question 44

What are the uses of fermentation?

Answer

Fermentation is a commercially important process. It is following processes:

Manufacture of alcohol

Curing of tea leaves, tobacco, etc.

Formation of curd from milk

Manufacture of vinegar, an industrially important compound.