NCERT Science Class 10 Chapter 12 Sustainable Management of Natural Resources CBSE Board Sample Problems Short Answer

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You being an environmentalist are interested in contributing towards the conservation of nature resources. List four activities that you can do on your own.


Four activities which can be done as an environmentalist to conserve natural resources are

  • Using public transport for commuting instead of using a personal vehicle.

  • Avoid using clothes, accessories or articles made of animal skin.

  • Using energy-efficient electrical appliances to save electricity.

  • Ensuring no leakage of water taps and pipes at home.


“Burning fossil fuels is a cause of global warming. “Justify this statement.


  • Fossil fuels like coal and petroleum are huge reservoirs of carbon and its compounds.

  • On burning fossil fuels, huge reservoirs of carbon present in fossil fuels get converted to carbon dioxide and go into air.

  • The amount of carbon dioxide thus increases in the atmosphere which leads to an increased greenhouse effect leading to excessive heating of the Earth i.e., global warming.


Explain the importance of recycling in the imagination of sustainable development and give any two examples?


  • Recycling ¡s very important as the deposition of wastes and garbage have huge negative impact on the environment. Harmful chemicals and greenhouse gases are released from the landfill sites or through the process of incineration.

  • Recycling helps to reduce the pollution caused by waste.

  • Recycling of resources is an important part of sustainability because it reduces the negative human impact on the environment and helps reduce the pressure on natural resources.


“Reuse is better than recycling of materials”. Give reason to justify this statement.


  • Reuse refers to the use of the same material again and again.

  • In reuse of materials no energy consumed and the resources are saved.

  • In recycling certain used materials are converted mt other useful materials.

  • In recycling of materials, energy is consumed and the resources may be wasted.


Suggest a few useful ways of utilizing waste water.


Waste water can be used ¡n the following ways:

  • For recharging the groundwater.

  • For irrigation.

  • Treated municipal water can be used for washing cars or watering the garden.

  • Certain pollutants in sewage water can be used as fertilizer for various crops.


We saw in this chapter that there are four main stakeholders when it comes to forests and wildlife. Which among these should have the authority to decide the management of forest produce? Why do you think so?


  • The local people staying near the forest should be given the authority to decide the management of forest produce.

  • They can keep a check on and control the misuse of the forest and its goods.

  • They are the ones who do not exploit the forest and they know how to manage so it stays there for their future generations to come.


List five things you have done over the last one week to:

(a) Conserve our natural resources.

(b) Increase the pressure on our natural resources.


  • To conserve our natural resources: I preferred walking to the nearby places or cycling instead of going by a car. Switched off lights when not required. Minimised the use of water and checked the extra flow of water. I did not buy anything which was not required and followed 3R’s reduce, reuse and recycle.

  • Increase the pressure on our natural resources: I used air conditioner, shopped for new clothes, wasted paper, bought goods made by killing animals like fur, leather, tusk etc. did not turn off the tap after use.


What can you as an individual do to reduce your consumption of the various natural resources?


By following 3 R’s

  • Reduce: Reduce or minimise the use of resources, by saving electricity by switching off unnecessary lights, and fans etc. and by walking whenever possible.

  • Recycle: Collect and recycle the products like plastic, paper, glass and metal.

  • Reuse: It is better than recycle. Instead of throwing used envelopes. We can reverse it and use it again. The plastic and glass containers, bottles can be reused.


Why should we conserve forests? State six reasons.


Conservation of forest is important as forest is useful to us in many ways:

  • Provides raw material for timber industry.

  • Prevents soil erosion and flood.

  • Provides medicines, herbs, gum, and resin.

  • Provides habitat to many animals.

  • Maintain water-cycle by bringing rain fall.

  • It reduces atmospheric pollution.


Can you suggest some changes in your school which would make it environment-friendly?


School management can do the following to make school environment- friendly

  • Growing more and more trees in and around the school.

  • Employing rainwater harvesting system in school.

  • Maintaining a small park in the school premises.

  • Encouraging students to become environment friendly.


Why forests are considered “biodiversity hotspots”? Mention two effects if biodiversity of the area is not preserved.


Because of the range and number of species found here.

Two effects

  • Natural calamities e.g. floods etc.

  • Soil erosion and extinction of species.


What is rainwater harvesting? How can it help in the conservation of forests?


  • It’s a technique of capturing rain water when it falls and taking measures to keep this water clean.

  • It is stored as underground water and provides moisture for vegetation over a wide area.


List three main problems that may arise due to construction of big dams.


  • Social problems

  • Economic problems

  • Environmental problems


Each of us can do something to reduce our personal consumption of various natural resources. Suggest any three such activities based on 5-R principle which you would like to practice ¡n your daily life.


Switching of lights and fans when not in use/ Closing taps while brushing/ Mending leaky taps/Using public transport/Carpooling/ Walking on foot for distances (Any 3 points)