Getting to Know Plants, Leaves, Structure of Leaf, Roots, Parts of Flower (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Getting to Know Plants

Plants can be grouped into herbs, shrubs, and trees. Other types of plants are climbers and creepers.

Getting to Know Plants
HerbsA herb is a non-woody plant that has green and tender stems with few branches and is usually short

Herbs are short with tender stem

Uses

Herbs have a variety of uses including adding flavour to food, providing medicine for diseases and in some cases even adding a spiritual tuch

ShrubsStem in shrubs is hard not very thick

Shrubs are taller than herbs and have stems branching out from the base

TreesA tree is a woody plant that has many branches on a single stem.

Trees have hard, thick born stem

The plants with weak stem that cannot stand upright and spread on ground are called creepers, whereas plants take support on neighboring structures and climb up are called climbers.

Leaves

  • Leaves are the structures which develop on branches. These are green coloured structures rich in chloroplasts.
  • As they have chlorophyll in them, they are considered to be food factories of the plant. Photosynthesis occurs in the leaves. Each leaf a bud in its axil.

Structure of Leaf

Structure of Leaf
Leaf baseThe point of attachment of the leaf to the nde on the stem
PetioleLeaf bears a stalk with which it is attached to the stem
LaminaThe flat part of the leaf exposed to light
MidribA thin structure which extends from the leaf base to the tip on the lamina
VeinsSmall thread like structures extend from the mid rib to the leaf margin. Veins helps in transportation of food
VenationArrangement of veins on the lamina of the leaf

Two types of arrangement of veins on the leaf are parallel venation and reticulate venation.

Functions of leaf

  • Photosynthesis takes place in leaves in which they use carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight.
  • Water comes out of leaves in the form of vapour. This is called transpiration.

Roots

  • Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil. Roots are two types-tap root and fibrous root.
  • Plant having the reticulate venation have tap roots while plants having the leaves with parallel venation have fibrous roots.

Flower

  • Flower is a reproductive structure of the plant. The different part of a flower include sepals, petals, stamens and pistil.
  • Flower helps the plant to give rise to new plant by the process of sexual reproduction.

Parts of flower are

Parts of Flower
PetalsThe coloured parts of flower are called as petals.
SepalsThe green leaf-like parts surrounding the bud are called the sepals.
StamensThe male reproductive part of a flower, it carries pollen grains. Parts of stamen are anther and filament
PistilThe female reproductive part of a flower. It carries ovules. Pistil as stigma, style and ovary.