NCERT Economics Class 10 Chapter 2 Sectors of the Indian Economy CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Why is agriculture an activity of unorganized sector in India? Explain.

Solution

Agriculture is an activity of unorganized sector in India because

  • There is no fixed number of working hours.
  • Agricultural laborers have no job security.
  • Government rules and regulations to protect the laborers are not followed.
  • Agricultural laborers are often exploited and are not paid a fair wage.
  • Agricultural laborers don՚t get any other benefit apart from daily wages. Sometimes, they do overtime without any payment.

Question

Distinguish between organized and unorganized sector

Solution

  • Organized sector is registered by the government whereas the unorganized sector is largely out of control of the government.
  • In organized sector the workers enjoy job security whereas in unorganized jobs are insecure and irregular.
  • In organized sector the number of working hours is fixed whereas in unorganized sector the number of working hours is not fixed.
  • In organized sector workers get several benefits such as paid leaves, payment during holidays whereas in unorganized sector such facilities are not available.
  • In organized sector the wages are high whereas in unorganized sector the wages are low.

Question

What is tertiary sector? Why is tertiary sector growing so rapidly in India?

Solution

Tertiary sector is a sector which provides services. It is rapidly growing because

  • The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development of services such as transport, communication, trade etc.
  • As the income level of people rise, they demand more and more services like tourism, shopping centres etc.
  • With modernization and globalization, some new services based on information and communication technology have become important and essential.
  • In any country services like educational institutions, police stations, courts, Defence, insurance companies etc. are required. These are called basic services. In a developed country, it is the responsibility of the government to provide these services due to which more and more people are being employed to provide these services to the people. And the tertiary is growing rapidly.

Question

What is disguised unemployment? Suggest some ways which can be helpful in creating more employment in rural areas?

Solution

Disguised unemployment is a situation when workers engaged in a work are more than required. For example: If there is work of 10 workers on a field but 15 workers are working, then 5 workers are suffering from disguised employment.

Some ways:

  • The cottage and small-scale industries should be set up in semi-rural areas. For e. g. setting up a flour mill or rice mill etc.
  • The government should invest some money in rural area to provide basic facilities like roads, transportation, markets etc.
  • Farmers should be encouraged to adopt horticulture, pisciculture, animal rearing etc. along with growing crops.
  • Government should set up commercial banks to provide loans to farmers at low rate of interest so that they can set up tube wells etc. on their fields due to which they can take more than one crop from the same piece of land in a year and that will increase employment in rural area.

Question

In what ways can employment be increased in urban areas?

Solution

  • Urban unemployment is characterized by the existence of both open unemployment, which in turn is an offshoot of rural unemployment itself, and the educated unemployment. Main causes of urban unemployment are insufficient economic development, defective system of education and slow growth of industrialization. Urban unemployment can be increased in the following ways.
  • Reform of the educational system to make it vocational at the school stage.
  • Concrete action will have to be taken to promote decentralization and dispersal of industrial activity.
  • Promotion of small-scale industries and encouragement to self-employment by banks.
  • Develop techniques of production that can be taken up with low capital intensity.
  • Provision of infrastructure like railways, roads, hospitals and schools which will not only create employment opportunities but also contribute to development.

Question

Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organized and unorganized sector?

Solution

Qiganised Sector:

  • Workers have job security.
  • Workers get regular monthly salary.
  • Rules and regulations are here.
  • Working hours are fixed here.
  • Working conditions are favourable.

Unorganized Sector:

  • Workers do not have job security.
  • Workers get daily wages.
  • Rules and regulations are not here.
  • Working hours are not fixed here.
  • Working conditions are not favourable.

Question

Describe the provisions of the National Rural employment Guarantee Act 2005

Solution

National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 aims to guarantee the right to work. It also aims at improving livelihood in rural areas.

The following are the provisions of the NREGA.

  • Eligibility: Any Indian citizen who is above the age of 18 years and resides in the rural area is entitled to apply for work.
  • Distance: Work is to be provided by the government in a radius of 5 km of the applicant if possible and in any case within the block. If the work provided is beyond 5 km of distance, extra travel allowance is to be paid.
  • Wages: Workers under NREGA are entitled to the statutory minimum wage applicable to agricultural labourers in the state, until and unless the central government notifies a different wage. In whichever case, the minimum wage cannot go below? 60 per day.
  • Timely payment: Workers are to be paid weekly or in any case not later than a fortnight. Payment of wages should be made directly to the person concerned on pre-announced dates.
  • Entitlement: Any applicant is entitled to work within 15 days, for as many as he/she applied, subject to a limitation of 100 days per year per household.

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