NCERT Geography Class 10 Chapter 1 Resources and Development India CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Distinguish between renewable and nonrenewable resources giving five points of distinction.

Solution

Renewable resources

1. These can be renewed and reproduced by physical chemical or mechanical processes.

These can be renewed over a short period of time.

2. Also known as replenish able resources

3. These are divided into continuous and flow

4. Examples water wind Wildlife soil

Nonrenewable resources

1 . These renew over a very long period of time.

These are limited in availability.

2. These are exhaustible

3. These are divided into recyclable and non-recyclable

4. Examples minerals and fossil fuels

Question

How has indiscriminate use of resources led to many problems? How can this situation be averted?

Solution

  • Resources are essential for human survival and for maintaining the quality of life but indiscriminate use of resources has led to many problems such as-
  • Depletion of resources for satisfying the needs of a few greedy individuals.
  • Accumulation of resources in the hands of a few individuals has divided the society into have and have not or rich or poor.
  • Over exploitation of resources has led to global economic crisis like global warming depletion of Ozone layer environmental pollution and land degradation.

Situation can be averted in the following ways

  • Judicious exploitation of resources should be done keeping in mind the need of present and future
  • There should be equal distribution and sharing of resources so that everyone gets desired benefits
  • Restriction should be laid on the use of latest technology in extraction of resources so that their waste can be minimised
  • We should divert our self to the use of non-conventional sources

Question

Explain any five factors responsible for the formation of soil.

Solution

  • Soil is the most important renewable natural resource. It is the medium of plant growth and supports different types of living organisms on the earth.
  • The soil is a living system. It takes millions of years to form soil up to a few cm in depth.
  • Relief, parent rock or bed rock, climate, vegetation and other forms of life are responsible for soil formation.
    • Relief: Steep slopes have thin soil layer due to erosion. Thick fertile soils are developed in the valleys and lowlands.
    • Parent rock: Soils are formed by weathering of rocks depending on the types of rocks. There are different types of soil.
    • Climate: The process of weathering, quantity of moisture, dryness, etc. in the soil depends on climate.
    • Vegetation: The amount of humus in the soil depends upon the vegetation cover. Areas under thick vegetation have more fertile soils but desert lands have less fertile soil and less humus.

Question

Suggest some measure to solve the problems of land degradation in India.

Solution

  • The vegetation provides the protective cover to the land.
  • Vegetation cover does not allow the rain water to fall straight on the land, thus, helps to maintain the soil fertility.
  • Afforestation helps to solve the problem of land degradation.
  • Shelter belts can be created on the margins of the desert areas.
  • In semi-arid areas, land degradation can be curbed by cultivation technique. It is based on moisture conservation.
  • The industrial effluents and wastes are a major cause of land degradation. Therefore, effective measures must be taken for the proper discharge and disposal of industrial effluents and wastes.
  • Over-grazing of land by animals is to be controlled.
  • It is also necessary to stabilize the shifting of sand dunes in the desert areas. It can be done by planting thorny bushes.

Question

“India՚s vast and diverse size is the most important resource.”

Support the statement.

Solution

In India, there is diversity not only in physiographic divisions but also in availability of resources.

There are regions which are rich in certain types of resources but are deficient in some other resources.

For example,

  • Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in mineral and coal deposits.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has abundant water resources.
  • Rajasthan is endowed with solar and wind energy.
  • Cold desert area of Ladakh is isolated from the rest of the country and is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals. So, it can be said that India՚s vast and diverse size is the most important resource.

Question

“Resource planning is essential.” Analyse the statement.

Solution

  • Resource planning is the widely accepted strategy for judicious use resources.
  • Some of the resources like coal, petroleum, etc. are available in. limited quantity. Resources are depleting at a faster rate. So, it needs a resource planning for their sustainable and judicious use.
  • Some of the resources have been accumulated by a handful of people. This restricts equitable access to the resources.
  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources is another factor that necessitates resource planning.
  • Resources are the gifts of the nature. These should be used judiciously and, in a way, that the coming generations do not get deprived of these resources.
  • Resource planning is important for sustainable development.

Question

“The Earth has enough resources to meet the need of all but not enough to satisfy the greed of even one person” How is this statement relevant to the discussion of development?

Solution

  • Resources are vital for any developmental activity.
  • The irrational consumption and over-utilization of resources may lead to environmental problems.
  • Indiscriminate exploitation of resources led to global ecological crises such as global warming, environmental pollution, etc.
  • The greedy and selfish individuals and exploitative nature of modern technology is the root cause for resource depletion at the global level.
  • If the present trend of resource depletion by a few individuals and countries continues the future of our planet is in danger.
  • There is need for sustainable development. It means development should be without damaging the environment and development in the present should not compromise with the need of future generations.

Question

“In India, some regions are rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources.” Do you agree with the statement?

Support your answer with any three examples

Solution

I agree with the statement that India is rich in certain types of resources but deficient in some other resources.

For example

  • The states of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh are rich in minerals and coal deposits.
  • Arunachal Pradesh has abundance of water resources but lacks in infrastructural development.
  • The state of Rajasthan is very well endowed with solar and wind energy but lacks in water resources.
  • The cold desert of Ladakh is relatively isolated from the rest of the country.
  • Ladakh has a very rich cultural heritage but it is deficient in water, infrastructure and some vital minerals.
  • Assam has mineral oil deposits as well as water resources but lacks in development.

Question

Distinguish between red and laterite soils, stating five points of distinction.

Solution

The following are the differences between red soils and laterite soils:

The Differences between Red Soils and Laterite Soils
Points of distinctionRed soilsLaterite soils
(a) FormationThese soils are formed due to the weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks.These soils are formed by the leaching process.
(b) OccurrenceThese soils develop in areas of low rainfall.These soils develop in the areas of high rainfall.
(c) ColourThese are red in colour due to the presence of iron in them.These are red in colour due to little clay and much gravel of red sandstones.
(d) TextureThese are less crystalline.These are crystalline.
(e) FertilityThese are highly porous and less fertile but where these are deep, these are fertile.These are less fertile, only grass grows in abundance.
(f) StatesThese are found in Tamil Nadu, Odisha, Chattisgarh and southern parts of the middle Ganges Plains.These are found in Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh and the hilly areas of Odisha and Assam.

Question

Suggest any five measures to solve the problem of land degradation in India.

Solution

Measures to solve the problem of land degradation in India are as follows:

  • Afforestation and proper management grazing lands.
  • Planting of shelter belts for stabilizing sand dunes.
  • Proper management of wastelands.
  • Control on mining activities.
  • Proper discharge of industrial effluents and wastes after treatment.