NCERT Geography Class 10 Chapter 2 Agriculture in India CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Why was the Green Revolution confined mainly to North Western India and mainly to wheat and rice crop?

Solution

  • Punjab has the highest irrigation index followed by Haryana.
  • Punjab Canal irrigation system is effectively supplemented by private tube wells and irrigation mechanism mostly owned and controlled by the farmer himself.
  • Wheat is a Rabi crop and is free from hazards of heavy rain and flood waters. This removes any possibility of fertilizers being washed away. Farmers see no risk in using costly fertilizers.
  • The occasional winter rainfall are welcome as they are good for the crop and bring some respite to the farmer who otherwise have to irrigate the field
  • Even rice crop is a kharif crops in Punjab and Haryana and is favorably influenced by green Revolution practices despite paucity of rainfall.
  • Farmers are enterprising and have a Mechanical Aptitude to develop new machines and implements needed for farming to save manual labour.

Question

Process of increasing area under cultivation does not have a bright future. What steps should be taken to increase the food supply?

Solution

Following measures should be taken

  • Increasing productivity by the use of modern agricultural inputs like high-yielding variety of irrigation fertilizers insecticides and pesticides.
  • Initiating Agricultural Research to envolve better productivity techniques.
  • Reducing the need for agricultural fertilizers and increasing the use of organic manure.
  • Using better irrigation methods that are sprinkler and drip irrigation to irrigate larger area these will also help to conserve water.
  • Implementing land Reform measures life ceiling on land Holdings consolidation of Holdings abolition of zamindari etc.
  • Improving dry farming techniques.

Question

Describe the contribution of agriculture to the National economy.

Solution

  • Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy
  • Its share in providing employment and livelihood to the population continued to be as high as 63 % in 2001
  • India is an agriculturally important country and two third of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.
  • Agriculture is a primary activity which produces most of the food that we consume.
  • Moreover some Agricultural Products like tea, coffee and spices are also exported.
  • All other sectors of India n economy heavily depend on agriculture for their growth.

Question

Mention in brief the various limitations from which Indian agriculture suffers presently.

Solution

  • Lack of irrigational facilities- only one third of the total sown area is actually irrigated rest of the land depends upon rainfall which is highly uncertain factor subsistence agriculture is practiced in a significantly large part of the country
  • Marginal and small Holdings dominate.
  • Productivity of these holding is very low . hence farmers are poor and cannot afford to introduce improvements on their lands storage and marketing facilities are not developed.
  • Farmers are forced to sell their produce at uncompetitive prices.
  • This made their economic position week. In the process the agricultural system suffers since a poor farmer cannot afford to introduce or adopt improved Technology.
  • Means of transport and communication are not developed.
  • Farmers experience difficulties in the purchase of inputs and sale of output. This makes Indian agriculture uneconomical. Proper arrangement for provision of CPC and adequate credit facilities do not exist.
  • Investment in the agricultural sector has been falling . as a result benefits of the new technology have not accrued to the Sector.

Question

“The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to improve agriculture in the 1 980s and 1 990s.”

Support this statement with examples.

Solution

Institutional Reforms

A Comprehensive Land Development Programme was initiated.

  • Provision of crop insurance against drought, floods, cyclone, fire and disease.
  • Establishment of Gramin Banks. Cooperative Societies and Banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
  • Kissan Credit Card (KCC) introduced.
  • Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) introduced.
  • The government announced Minimum Support Price, remunerative and procurement prices to reduce exploitation.

Technological Reforms

HYV seeds/Chemical Fertilizer/Pesticides were provided.

  • Methods of Irrigation modernized.
  • Latest agricultural equipments introduced.
  • Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers were introduced on Radio and Television.
  • Any other relevant point.
  • Any five points to be explained in which at least any two from Institutional and two from technological reforms to be explained.

Question

Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial farming’ practiced in India.

Solution

  • Comparison between ‘Intensive Subsistence farming’ and ‘Commercial farming’
  • In Intensive subsistence farming pressure of population on land is high whereas in commercial farming population pressure is low.
  • In intensive subsistence farming labour intensive farming is used whereas in commercial farming mechanized form of farming is used.
  • In intensive subsistence farming there is low capital investment whereas in commercial farming high capital investment is seen.
  • In intensive subsistence farming farmers produce for their own consumption whereas in commercial farming production is mainly for the market.
  • In intensive subsistence farming processing industries are not associated with farms whereas in commercial farming processing industries are associated with plantations.
  • In intensive subsistence farming multiple cropping is practiced whereas in commercial farming single cropping is practiced.
  • In intensive subsistence farming land holdings are small whereas in commercial farming land holdings are large.
  • Any other relevant point. Any five points of comparison to be mentioned

Question

State any five characteristics of primitive subsistence farming.

Solution

Following are the characteristics of primitive subsistence farming

  • In this type of farming, farmers grow crops for self-consumption. This type of farming is practiced in few pockets of India.
  • It is practiced on small patches of land.
  • Farmers use primitive tools like hoe, Dao and digging sticks
  • Only family Community is used for farming.
  • This type of farming depends upon natural condition of monsoon, natural fertility of the soil and suitable conditions for the crops.
  • It is also known as slash and Burn agriculture.
  • Land productivity in this type of agriculture is low as the farmer does not use fertilizers or other modern inputs.

Question

Describe technological and institutional reforms introduced by the government in the interest of farmers after independence?

Solution

Technological reforms:

  • The various technological and institutional reforms consist of various measures taken by the central and state governments from time to time. Flooding of fields with the water is now being replaced by drip irrigation and the use of sprinklers.
  • Chemical fertilizers are being used on large scale to increase the farm yields. They are now being supplemented by bio fertilizers.
  • High yielding and early maturing quality seeds have been developed. Most of these technology input gave birth to Green revolution in sixties and seventies of twentieth century. The green revolution was followed by White revolution.

Institutional reforms:

  • The government of India abolished Zamindari system.
  • Consolidated small holdings to make them economical viable.
  • Development of irrigation facilities - In order to modernize the agriculture, it is necessary to develop irrigation.
  • Improved seeds and the chemical fertilizers form the basis of modernization of the agriculture.
  • Government has established multipurpose societies and cooperative banks in rural areas.

Question

What are the challenges faced by Indian farmers?

Solution

  • Reduction in public investment by government in the agricultural sector particularly in areas of irrigation, power, rural roads, market and mechanization.
  • Subsidy on fertilizers has decreased leading to increase in the cost of production.
  • Reduction in import duties on agricultural products has proved detrimental to agriculture in the country.
  • Most of the farmers has small patch of land, so they are not able to increase their earning. All these factors have led to stiff international competition. Farmers are thus withdrawing their investment from agricultural employment.

Question

What are the geographical conditions required for the cultivation of wheat and explain its distribution also.

Solution

  • Wheat is the second important food crop of India. It requires a cool and moist climate during the growing season and a dry climate at the time of ripening.
  • It required Annual rainfall of 60 to 75 cm and fertile sandy soil is very suitable.
  • The chief wheat growing areas are Punjab, Haryana, U. P. , Bihar, M. P. , Rajasthan, Maharashtra, etc. , because all the conditions for wheat production are found here.
  • The use of high yielding varieties of seeds, fertilizers and irrigation facilities helped raise the average yield per acre.
  • Production of wheat increase to 65.9 million tonnes mark in 1997 - 98.

Question

Discuss the importance of agriculture in Indian economy.

Solution

  • India is an agricultural country. Two-third of its population is engaged in agricultural activities.
  • Agriculture provides employment to millions of people directly and indirectly.
  • Most of the food that we consumed is produced by millions of farmers of our country.
  • Our animal wealth also depends, for its food, on agriculture.
  • Agriculture also produces raw material for various industries such as cotton textiles, woolen textiles, jute textiles, sugar mills, paper industry, etc.
  • We export so many agricultural products like tea, coffee, spices, fruits, vegetables, eggs, fish, mutton, leather, etc. By exporting these articles, a goods, we earn huge foreign exchange.

Question

Give reasons for increasing use of fertilizers in farming.

Solution

  • Increasing population: Due to increasing population of our country, a pressure has been felt on agriculture. Agriculture sector has disguised unemployment so, the people have tried to establish coordination by increasing per hector production.
  • For this, they use fertilizers heavily.
  • Commercialization: Sometimes ago, the purpose of agriculture was meant for sustained livelihood but with the changing time, it has become purely commercial. This is the reason to raise per hector productivity and people began using fertilizers.
  • Mechanization of Agriculture: Due to modern agriculture machines and equipments, people dependency on livestock has declined. Therefore, a decrease in their number has been observed. Farmers are mostly using tractors, thrashers, etc.
  • This way the amount of natural manure that farmers obtained in form of dung has decreased and the use of fertilizers has increased.
  • HYV Seeds: Many high yielding varieties of seeds are being used which need fertilizers for their proper growth.

Question

Describe the conditions required for the cultivation of tea.

Name two major tea-producing states of India.

Solution

Tea is an important beverage crop.

The following are the conditions required for its cultivation.

  • The tea plant grows in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have deep, fertile and well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter.
  • Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year.
  • Tea bushes require frequent showers throughout the year to ensure continuous growth of tender leaves. It needs abundant, cheap and skilled labour.
  • Two major tea-producing states are Assam and West Bengal.

Question

What is intensive subsistence farming? Write three features of intensive subsistence farming.

Solution

Intensive subsistence farming is practiced in areas of high density of population, where pressure of population is high on agricultural land.

The following are the three features of this type of farming.

  • It is labor-intensive farming.
  • High doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation are used for obtaining higher, production.
  • Farm size is small and uneconomical due to the division of land.
  • Farmers take maximum output from the limited land.
  • Farmers do not have any alternative source of livelihood.
  • Thus, there is enormous pressure on agricultural land.

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