NCERT Geography Class 10 Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources in India CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

What is geothermal energy? What is its importance and mention the areas of scope of this energy?

Solution

  • Geothermal energy refers to the heat and electricity produced by using the heat from the interiors of the earth.
  • Geothermal energy exists because the earth grows progressively hotter with increasing depth where the geothermal gradient is high.
  • High temperatures are found at shallow depths. Groundwater in such areas absorbs heat from the rocks and becomes hot.
  • It is so hot that when it rises to the earth՚s surface, it turns into steam. This steam is used to drive turbines and generate electricity.
  • There are several hundred hot springs in India which could be used to generate electricity.
  • It is an eco-friendly source of energy which is free and can last long. India has huge potentials to harness this energy. Two experimental projects have been set up in India to harness geothermal electricity.
  • One is located in the Parvati Valley near Manikarn in Himachal
  • Pradesh and the other is located in the Puga Valley in Ladak

Question

Energy saved is energy produced. Assess the statement.

Solution

  • Energy saved is energy produced. This statement is true. India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for judicious use of our Limited energy resources.
  • For example as concerned citizens we can do our bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
  • Switching off electricity when not in use.
  • Using power saving devices.
  • Using non-conventional sources of energy.
  • After all energy saved is energy produced.

Question

Why is conservation of mineral resources essential? Explain any three methods to conserve them.

Solution

  • The reasons for conservation of mineral resources are
    • The strong dependence of industry and Agriculture upon minerals.
    • The process of mineral formation is slow.
    • They are nonrenewable.
  • Methods to conserve mineral resources are
    • Minerals should be used in a planned and sustainable manner.
    • Improved Technology needs to be constantly evolved to allow use of low grade or at low cost.
    • Recycling of metals using scrap metals.
    • Wastage in mining and processing should be minimised.

Question

Why have most of the iron and steel plants been set up in the public sector? Give three reasons.

Solution

Following are the reasons for the setting up of iron and steel plants in the public sector:

  • Huge investment is required for setting up and running the industry which may not be possible for the private sector.
  • Huge infrastructural facilities that are pre-requisite necessities like efficient and modern transportation and communication, abundant fuel and power supply, etc. are available in the public sector.
  • Due to fast technical advancement, it calls for continuous upgradation of research and development and technology.
  • It starts production and profit making in the long run, so it may not be suited for the private sector only. Tata steel is in the private sector.

Question

The distribution of mineral deposits is uneven. How does it affect industrial development of the country?

Solution

  • Mineral constitute the basic raw material for many industries hence they form the base of industrial development in the country
  • Location of minerals is an important factor in determining the location of industries.
  • The uneven distribution of mineral deposits in the country can lead to lopsided industrial development.
  • Those regions and industries that are well endowed with mineral deposits would be in a position to attract new industries.
  • However development of faster means of transportation and communication facilitate minerals movement. Minerals can easily move long distances.
  • Therefore those areas which have limited minerals do not suffer from this handicap.

Question

Describe Any Five Characteristics of the Durg Bastar Chandrapur Iron Ore Belt in India

Solution

The characteristic are as follows

  • The region lies in Chhattisgarh and Maharashtra.
  • Very high grade hematite Ores are found in the famous Bailadila ranges of hills in the Bastar district
  • The range of hills comprises of 14 deposits of super high grade hematite iron ore.
  • It has the best physical properties needed for steel making.
  • Iron ore from these miles is exported to Japan and South Korea to Visakhapatnam port.

Question

How can solar energy solve the energy problem to some extent in India? Give your opinion.

Solution

  • India is in the tropical zone therefore there is an abundance of solar energy radiation
  • It is a renewable source of energy.
  • It does not cause pollution.
  • It is comparatively easy and cheaper to install at local level.
  • It is mainly used in agricultural and domestic factor.

Question

In the present day Energy Crisis what steps will you like to take for saving energy?

Solution

  • Judicious use of energy resources
  • Use of public transport
  • Use of bicycle for short distances
  • Switching of electrical gadgets when not in use
  • Avoid using refrigerator or AC when not needed
  • Regular cleaning of gas burner and switching off the gas regulator when not in use
  • Creating awareness neighbourhood with catchy slogans
  • Add India has been blessed with abundance of Sunlight water wind and Biomass we must use these to overcome the present an energy crisis

Question

Why Solar energy in Rajasthan and biogas in the plains and hills of North India have great potential and non-conventional sources of energy?

Solution

Solar energy has great potential to develop in Rajasthan because of the following reasons

  • Hot and dry region
  • Hairstyles for a considerable part of the Year
  • Abundant insolation
  • Cheaper installation easier management
  • Renewable pollution free and Residue free source of energy

Biogas has a greater potential in the plains and hills of North India due to the following reasons dense vegetation

  • Large number of cattle and livestock
  • High density of population and hands easy availability of human waste

Question

Distinguish between natural gas and bio gas.

Solution

Natural gas

  • It is a mixture of combustible gaseous hydrocarbon occurring in the rocks of the earth crust.
  • It is used as a raw material in the petrochemical industry.
  • It is transported from one place to another through pipeline.
  • It is mainly used in urban areas.
  • Majorly found in states like Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh

Biogas

  • It is derived from the composition of waste of animals and plants with the help of microorganisms in the presence of water.
  • It is used as a fuel and for lighting home.
  • It is produced in tanks.
  • It is mainly found in rural areas.
  • Majorly found in states like Gujarat.

Question

Differentiate between conventional source of energy and non-conventional source of energy.

Conventional source of energy

  • These are the traditional energy sources of energy produced from Coal Petroleum and natural gas
  • They are non-renewable
  • There generation is expensive
  • They pollute the atmosphere on a large scale
  • Examples-Coal, Petroleum

Non-conventional sources of energy

  • These are the sources of energy developed recently from the sun wind tide etc.
  • They are renewable
  • There generation is very cheap
  • They are pollution free sources
  • Examples-Tidal energy, solar energy

Question

Distinguish between metallic and nonmetallic Minerals.

Solution

Metallic Minerals

  • Metallic minerals are those which provide metal after their processing such as iron copper aluminium iron silver and gold
  • They are often hard
  • They have a shine or lustre of their own
  • They can be smelt
  • They can be drawn into wires are rolled into sheets

Non-Metallic Minerals

  • Nonmetallic minerals are those minerals which do not provide metals for example Coal Petroleum salt
  • They are not hard
  • They do not have a shine
  • The cannot be smelt
  • The cannot be mouIded into sheets

Question

Why is there a pressing need to use non-conventional sources of energy in recent year՚s in India? Explain any three reasons.

Solution

  • Non-conventional sources of energy means using renewable source of energy
  • For example, solar energy, Wind energy, bio gas etc. these sources are called non-conventional energy sources.
  • Growing consumption of energy has made us totally dependent on fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas. Following factors have been causing uncertainties about the security of energy supplier in future:
    • Rising prices of oil and gas and - Their potential shortage in future
    • It in turn has serious repercussion on the growth of the economy.
    • Increasing use of fossil fuels also cause serious environmental problems
    • Hence there is a need to use non-conventional source of energy like solar, wind, tides, biomass and energy from waste material.

Question

What are the conventional sources of energy? Why is water, as a source of energy, more important than coal and petroleum?

Explain any four points in this regard.

Solution

  • Coal, petroleum, maturely gas and electricity are conventional sources of energy.
  • Hydroelectricity, generated from water is important then coal and petroleum resources because of following reasons:
    • It is a renewable resource. For generating hydroelectricity water is released at great force from a high head, and dams are constructed across rivers to store water. While other sources of energy namely coal, petroleum and gas are non-renewable resources.
    • Water is available in abundance while coal and petroleum have a limited stock.
    • Hydroelectricity accounts for 25 % of total electricity produced in India.
    • The total hydel power potential of India is estimated at 150,000 MW of which only one sixth has been developed so far.
  • The total installed capacity of the hydel power projects of the country is 23,488 MW. Important hydel power producing states are Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Odisha and Punjab.

Question

How is coal “an important source of energy and industrial raw material as well” ? Write four points of each.

Solution

Coal as important source of energy:-

  • It provides a substantial part of nations energy needs as it is abundantly available.
  • It is used for power generation, to supply energy for industrial and domestic needs.
  • India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial needs. Its share is about 67 % .
  • It can easily be converted into other forms of energy like electricity, gas, oil etc.

Coal can be used as industrial material:

  • It is an indispensable raw material for iron and steel industry as it is required for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
  • It provides raw material for chemical industries and synthetic textile industry.
  • Many coal-based products are processed in industries example - coal tar, graphite, soft coke etc.
  • Power generation industry is mainly based on this fossil fuel. Generally thermal power plants are located closed to the coal mines.

Question

Name four types of coal and write two characteristics of each.

Solution

Anthracite:

  • It is the highest quality hard coal.
  • It contains more than 80 % carbon content and gives less smoke.
  • Bituminous:
  • It is the most popular coal in commercial use and has 60 %-70 % carbon content.
  • Metallurgical coal is high grade bituminous coal and is of special value of smelting iron in blast furnace.

Lignite:

  • It is a low-grade brown coal.
  • It is soft with high moisture content.

Peat:

  • It has a low carbon and high moisture content
  • It has low heating capacity and gives lot of smoke on burning.

Question

Write five main types of formations in which minerals occur.

Solution

  • Veins and Iodes: in igneous and metamorphic rocks, minerals may occur in the cracks, faults or joints by getting solidified in them. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are Iodes. Ex-metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc, led, etc. are found in Iodes and veins
  • In sedimentary rocks, minerals occur in beds or layers. They are formed as a result of deposition, accumulation and concentration in horizontal strata. Some sedimentary minerals are formed as a result of evaporation, especially in arid regions. Ex. Gypsum, potash and salt.
  • Another mode of formation involves decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble contents, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores. Bauxite is formed this way.
  • Minerals also occur as a placer deposit. They occur as alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills. Ex. Gold, silver, tin, and platinum
  • The ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals; ex. Common salt, magnesium and bromide are largely derived from the ocean waters. The ocean beds are rich in manganese nodules.

Question

Why is there a pressing need to use renewable energy resources in India? Explain any five reasons.

Solution

The given statement can be justified by the following arguments:

  • Increased consumption of energy resources has increased our dependence on fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas.
  • There are uncertainties about the energy supplies in future because of their potential shortages.
  • Use of non-renewable sources have serious consequences on the growth of national economy as they are getting expensive day by day.
  • Above all, non-renewable sources pose a great threat in the form of pollution and other environmental issues.
  • Solar, wind, tide, biomass and energy from waste material can thus, be proved advantageous in long run.

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