NCERT Geography Class 10 Chapter 3 Minerals and Energy Resources in India CBSE Board Sample Problems Short Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Differentiate between thermal and hydroelectricity.

Solution

Thermal electricity

  • Thermal electricity is produced by burning Coal Petroleum and nuclear minerals.
  • It is a nonrenewable and inexpensive source of power.
  • It pollutes the atmosphere

Hydroelectricity

  • Hydroelectricity is produced from falling water.
  • It is renewable and the cheapest source of power.
  • It is pollution free.

Question

Why Damodar Valley is called the Ruhr of India?

Solution

  • Ruhr Valley in Germany is known for its rich coal deposits and hence has been the industrial heart of Europe, flourishing iron and steel industry.
  • Likewise the Damodar Valley in the Chota Nagpur Plateau of Jharkhand is known for its huge coal Reserves.
  • Nearly 75 % of the country՚s coal deposits are located here.
  • Hence it is has been the centre of iron and steel and other metallurgical industries.
  • This is why it is called the Ruhr of India.

Question

How is Bombay High helpful in the development of our country?

Solution

  • Bombay high is an offshore oil field situated 115 kilometres of Mumbai.
  • Accounts for 53 % of the total petroleum production in the country.
  • It is the richest, it supplies more than 1 million gallons of oil every day.
  • It has led to the discovery of new offshore areas for oil extraction
  • India has also become capable of manufacturing oil drills and mobile platforms for drilling in deep waters

Question

Differentiate between ferrous and nonferrous Minerals.

Solution

Ferrous minerals

  • Minerals have iron content
  • They help in the development of metallurgical industries
  • Examples iron ore Manganese

Nonferrous minerals

  • Minerals do not have iron content
  • They play an important role in number of Engineering and electrical industries
  • Exam pie lead zinc gold

Question

Describe any three characteristics of Orissa Jharkhand belt of iron ore in India.

Solution

  • Orissa Jharkhand belt has the following three characteristics
  • In Orissa high grade hematite Ore is found.
  • It is found in Badampahar mines in the Mayurbhanj and Kendujhar district.
  • In the adjoining singhbhum District of Jharkhand, haematite Ore is mined in Gua and Noamundi.

Question

Why is conservation of minerals necessary? Give four reasons.

Solution

The conservation of minerals is necessary because -

  • The formation of minerals takes long geological period.
  • They are finite, i.e.. , limited in nature.
  • Most of them are non-renewable and exhaustible.
  • They have to be preserved for our future generations because they are very important for industrial development of the nation.

Question

Mention any four uses of manganese ore.

Solution

Manganese ore is used for

  • To make iron and steel and make various alloys.
  • To manufacture bleaching powder.
  • To manufacture insecticide.

Question

“Mineral resources in India are unevenly distributed” . Support this statement with three suitable examples.

Solution

  • Mineral in peninsular India:
    • The peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals, mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
  • Minerals in western and eastern region of India:
    • Sedimentary rocks of the western and eastern parts of India that is Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits
  • Minerals in Rajasthan:
    • Rajasthan with the rock system of the peninsula, have reserves of many nonferrous minerals especially copper and mica.
  • Minerals in north India:
    • The vast alluvial planes of north India are almost unavailable to extract economic minerals.

Question

Distinguish between Ferrous and Non-Ferrous Minerals.

Solution

  • Ferrous minerals (containing Iron) - iron ore, manganese, nickel, cobalt, chromite, and pyrite. These minerals help in the growth and development of metallurgical industries.
  • Non-Ferrous minerals (containing Metals other than iron) - copper, bauxite, tin, and lead. These minerals are important for engineering and electrical industries.

Question

Distinguish between Metallic minerals and Non-Metallic Minerals՚.

Solution

Metallic minerals —

  • Metallic minerals are those minerals which can be melted to obtain new products.
  • These are generally associated with igneous rocks.
  • They are usually hard and have shine of their own.
  • They are ductile and malleable.
  • When hit, they don՚t get broken.
  • Iron, copper, bauxite, tin and manganese are some example of metallic minerals.

Non-metallic minerals-

  • Non-metallic minerals are those which do not yield new products on melting.
  • These are generally associated with sedimentary rocks.
  • They are not so hard and have no shine or lustre of their own.
  • They are brittle.
  • When they hit, they may get broken into pieces.
  • Coal, salt, clay and marble are some example of non-metallic minerals.

Question

Why is coal called the most important source of energy even today in India? Explain giving three reasons.

Solution

Coal is called the most important source of energy even today in India because:

  • India has abundant reserves of coal which meets a greater part of our energy requirements.
  • It is used for generation of electricity in thermal power plants.
  • It is used as energy resources both for domestic and industrial purposes.

Question

Why is energy required for all activities? How can energy be generated?

Solution

  • Energy is required for all our activities.
  • It is needed to cook, to provide heat and light, to propel vehicles, and to drive machinery.
  • Energy can be generated from conventional and non-conventional sources.
  • Conventional resources include fire wood, cattle dung cake, fuel minerals like coal, petroleum etc.
  • Non-conventional resources include solar, wind, tidal, atomic energy, etc.

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