NCERT Geography Class 10 Chapter 5 Manufacturing Industries India CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

State the factors that determine the location of industries in a country

Solution

Physical factors

  • Availability of raw material- this factor will be specially important in case of raw material based heavy industries like Iron and Steel and cement industry.
  • Availability of power resources- power is a basic necessity to run machinery.
  • Proximity to hydro power or Thermal Power resources will attract more industries.
  • Availability of water- almost all Industries require a huge quantity of water.
  • Water cannot be transported over long distances. Availability of water at site will attract more industry.
  • Availability of favourable climate- hostile climatic conditions generally deter the prospective entrepreneurs while gentle climate invite them.

Human factors

  • Availability of labour skilled unskilled induces more industries.
  • Proximity to market, as transportation involved not only expenditure but also delays. Industries tend to cluster around areas where a market for the manufacture product exists.
  • Infrastructural facilities like availability of easy and quick means of transportation and communication banking facilities availability of finance attract more industries.
  • Government policy- government policy plays a positive role, for example the role of government in Southern States to attract software industry.

Question

What steps have been taken by NTPC towards environment protection?

Solution

  • NTPC is a major power providing corporation in India. It has ISO certification for EMS (Environment Management System) .
  • The corporation has a pro-active approach for preserving the natural environment and resources like water, oil and gas and fuels in places where it is setting up power plants.
  • This has been possible through-
    • Optimum utilization of equipment adopting latest techniques and upgrading existing equipment.
    • Minimizing waste generation by maximizing ash utilization.
    • Providing green belts for nurturing ecological balance and addressing the question of special purpose vehicles for afforestation.
    • Reducing environmental pollution through ash pond management, ash water recycling system and liquid waste management.
    • Ecological monitoring, reviews and online database management for all its power stations.

Question

Explain with examples the interdependence of agriculture and industries.

Solution

  • The Agro Industries in India has given a major boost to agriculture by raising its productivity
  • They depend on the latter for raw material.
  • They sell their products such as irrigation pump fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides and PVC pipe machines to the farmers.
  • Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industries has assisted agriculturist
  • Development and competitiveness of manufacturing industries helps not only in increasing their production but also made the production processes very efficient

Question

How do industrialization and urbanization go hand in hand?

Solution

After an industrial activity starts, urbanization follows.

  • Sometimes industries are located near cities where raw materials, labour, capital and market are available.
  • Industries can also be found at places where the above factors can be arranged at low cost.
  • Cities provide markets and services like banking insurance transport labour and financial advice.
  • Thus many industry come together to make use of the favourable climate offered by urban centres known as agglomeration economies.
  • Gradually a huge industrial agglomeration takes place to this process.

Question

What measures would you suggest to control environmental degradation and pollution that is caused by industries?

Solution

The various measures can be grouped as follows

  • Careful planning needs to go into selection of location site for industries.
  • Use of better designed equipment in industry so that pollution is prevented.
  • Efficient operation of the equipment.
  • Use of oil instead of coal in the industries to prevent smoke.
  • Installation of equipment to control aerosol emissions. Some of these instruments are inertial separator filter precipitators and scrubbers.

Treatment of water before it is discharged into rivers.

Treatment of industrial liquids can be done in three phases-:

  • Primary treatment by mechanical process. This includes screening grinding flocculation and sedimentation.
  • Secondary treatment by biological process.
  • Tertiary treatment by biological chemical and physical process. This includes recycling of wastewater.

Control of plant and soil pollution which involve three activities

  • Collection of waste from different places.
  • Dumping in disposing of waste by landfilling.
  • Recycling of waste for father use.

Question

Define Agro based industries. What is their significance in the Indian economy?

Solution

  • Industries which derive raw materials directly from agriculture are called agro based industries, for example textile sugar vegetable oil tobacco and Rubber Industries.
  • Their importance arises from the following facts India is basically an agrarian economy.
  • Agricultural provide raw materials to agro based industries which in turn promote industrialization of the economy.
  • It is a source of large scale employment both in urban and rural areas.
  • It helps in earning Foreign exchange.
  • It results in better utilization of Agricultural Products and add considerably to their value.

Question

What the various ways of preventing Environmental Degradation by Industry?

Solution

  • Water should be reused and recycled in the industry. This will help in minimizing the use of freshwater.
  • Rainwater harvesting should be promoted.
  • Hot water and effluents should be treated before being released in rivers and Ponds
  • Overdrawing of ground water needs to be regulated legally.
  • Smoke can be reduced by using oil or gas instead of coal in factories.
  • Noise absorbing material may be used apart from personal use of earplugs and earphones.

Question

Examine the impact of Liberalization on automobile industry in India.

Solution

  • Automobile Industry provides vehicles for quick transport of goods, services and passengers.
  • This Industry had experienced a quantum jump in less than 15 years.
  • Foreign direct investment brought in new technology and aligned the Industry with global developments.
  • Now we have latest automobile available as soon as it is launched.
  • After liberalization, the coming in of new of new and contemporary models stimulated the demand for vehicles in the market, which led to the healthy growth of the industry including passenger cars, two and three wheelers

Question

What is manufacturing sector? Describe the four types of manufacturing sectors on the basis of ownership.

Solution

  • Manufacturing sector refers to the secondary sector of the economy deals with production of goods in large quantities with the help of machine, which converts the raw materials into valuable products.
  • On the basis of ownership, manufacturing is classified into four types:
    • Public sector: Public sector industries are owned and run by government agencies like BHEL, SAIL etc.
    • Private sector: Private sector industries are owned and run by individuals or a group of individuals.
      • Example: TISCO, Bajaj Auto Ltd.
    • Joint sector: Joint sector industries are jointly run by the state and individuals or a group of individuals.
      • Example: OIL (Oil India Limited) is jointly owned by private and public sector.
    • Cooperative sector: Cooperative sector industries are owned and run by the producers or suppliers of raw materials, workers or both or cooperative societies who pool their resources.
      • They share the profit or loss proportionately, for example, sugar mills, and coir industry and hand-loom textiles.

Question

Explain any five factors affecting the location of an industry.

Solution

The following factors affect the location of an industry:

  • Availability of raw materials: Close proximity to raw material, regular supply at cheap cost are of utmost significance, e. g. , concentration of heavy industries in Chattisgarh.
  • Labour: Modern industry requires both skilled and unskilled labour at low cost. It also determines the location of industry, e. g. , cotton textile industry in Maharashtra.
  • Capital: Industries are capital intensive. Banks and other financial institutions, insurance etc. play an important role in setting up production units.
  • Power: All production units depend on one or other sources of power like coal, oil, gas etc. Regular and cheap supply of power is required to keep industries operational, e. g. , iron and steel industries near Raniganj and Jharia coal fields.
  • Market: Goods manufactured need to be sold in the market to maintain the demand and supply.