NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 1 the Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for CBSE : fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success.

Question

Describe the process of unification of Italy.

Solution

  • In the 18305, Mazzini made efforts to unite Italy by forming a secret society called Young Italy which failed.
  • The mantle now fell on Sardinia-Piedmont under King Victor Emmanuel lito unify the Italian states through war.
  • Chief Minister Cavour, through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
  • Also a large number of armed volunteers under Giuseppe
  • Garibaldi joined them.
  • In 1860, with the support of the local peasants they drove out the Spanish from Southern Italy.
  • In 1861 Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed king of united Italy.

Question

“The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism in the first half of nineteenth century became a narrow creed with limited ends” . Examine the statement.

Solution

  • Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant which leads to war.
  • Major European [powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations to further their own imperialist aims.
  • Source of nationalist tension in Europe was the area called Balkans.
  • Idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
  • One by one, European nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
  • The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality to prove that they were once independent but were subjugated by foreign power.
  • As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkans area became an area of intense conflicts.

Question

Analyse the measures and practices introduced by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

Solution

  • The ideas of La Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
  • A new French flag, tricolor was chosen to replace the Royal standard.
  • Estates general was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  • New Hymns were composed and martyr commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  • A centralized system of administration was introduced, uniform laws were made for all citizens
  • French language was spoken and written and became a common language in Paris.

Question

How did the nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerge? Describe.

Solution

  • Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominate class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional division.
  • They speak French for the purpose of diplomacy and in high society.
  • Industrialsation began in England in second half of the 18th century but in France and Germany states it occurred only during 19th century in its wake, new social groups came into being.
  • It was among the educated liberal middle class that ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
  • Nations began to be perceived as having a definite territory, anthem and flag together with a Parliament which was elected by men of middle-class society.

Question

Briefly trace the geographical and ethnic variations of Balkans region. Why did this region become politically very explosive?

Solution

  • The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of many states and territories whose inhabitants were commonly known as Slaves.
  • A large part of Balkans was under the control of Ottoman Empire while some other parts were under the control of Russia and Austria causing a complex problem.
  • The spread of ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made the region very explosive.
  • The Balkan people based their claim for independence or political rights on nationality and desired to win back their long-lost freedom.
  • The Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. Each power-Russia, Germany, England, and Austria-Hungry was keen on extending the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.

Question

“While it is easy enough to represent a ruler through a portrait or a statue, how one goes about giving a face to a nation.”

Examine this statement in context of European nationalism in five points

Solution

Visualizing the Nation:

  • Artists personified the nation-portrayed nation as a female figure.
  • Artists used the female allegory to portray ideas such as liberty, justice and the republic.
  • Statues of Marianne were erected in public squares to remind the national symbol of unity and to persuade them to identify with them.
  • Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps.
  • Germania became the allegory of the German nation. She wears a crown of oak leaves as in Germany oak stands for heroism.

Question

How had revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 181 5? Explain with examples.

Solution

Revolutionaries and spread their ideas.

  • Many revolutionaries opposed monarchical rule and fought for liberty and freedom of their respective states.
  • One such revolutionary was Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italian patriot, was sent to exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He became the member of a secret society Carbonari.
  • He founded two underground societies, first Young Italy in Marseilles and the other Young Europe in Berne. The society had members from Poland, France, Italy, Germany, etc. The members believed in the formation of nation states and they were liberal minded people.
  • Following the example of Italy, secret societies were set up in Germany, France Switzerland, and Poland. Mazzini՚s vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.

Question

How did Balkans become the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871? Explain with examples.

Solution

  • Balkan become the most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 because of the following reasons:
    • It was a region consisting of multi-nationalities including modem day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece etc. It was under the control of Ottoman Empire.
    • There arouse internal conflicts among the different nationalities and they voiced protest to assert their independence.
    • The romantic sentiments made the people understand that they were subjugated by a foreign power.
    • The Balkan states were fiercely jealous of each other and they wanted to gain more territories at the cost of others.
    • Other big European powers like Russia, Germany, England, etc. were keen on controlling the hold of other powers over the Balkans. They too had their imperialistic ambitions on Balkans.
  • This made the situation in Balkans worse and led to First World War in 1914.

Question

Explain the contribution of Giuseppe Mazzini in spreading revolutionary ideas in Europe.

Solution

  • Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Mazzini was born in Genoa in 1807. He became a member of the secret society of the Carbonari. At the age of 24, he was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
  • He founded two underground societies, first, Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. The members of the society were drawn from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
  • Mazzini strongly believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty.
  • Following his model, secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland. Mazzini՚s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives.
  • Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’ .

Question

Explain any four changes brought about in Europe by the Treaty of Vienna (1815) .

Solution

  • Napoleon was defeated in 1815 by collective European powers i.e.. Britain, Russia, Prussia, and Austria.
  • The representatives of European powers drew up the Treaty of Vienna at a congress hosted by Austrian Chancellor Duke Metternich with the objective of undoing the changes that had come about the Europe during the Napoleonic wars.
  • Following changes were brought about in Europe by this treaty:
  • The Bourbon dynasty that was destroyed during the French Revolution was restored. French lost the territories it has annexed under Napoleon.
  • A series of states were set up on the boundaries of France to prevent French expansion in future.
  • The Netherlands which included Belgium was set up in the north. Genoa was added to Piedmont in the south.
  • Prussia was given important new territories on its western frontiers. Austria was given control of northern Italy.
  • The German confederation of 39 states set up by Napoleon was left untouched. Russia was given part of Poland and Prussia was given part of Saxony.
  • Monarchy was restored and a new conservative order was created in Europe.

Question

Describe the process of unification of Germany.

Solution

The Process of unification of Germany:

  • By 1848, the popular effort of political associations failed in installing a constitutional monarchy in Germany.
  • The Failure of Frankfurt Parliament made it clear that German unification had to come through the combined effort of monarchy and army supported by large landowners.
  • From 1848, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement of national unification.
  • In this process Otto von Bismarck, the Chief Minister of Prussia, proved to be the main architect.
  • Bismarck reached his goal with the help of Prussian army and the bureaucracy. He fought three wars in seven years with Austria, Denmark and France which ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of German unification.

Question

“The idealistic liberal-democratic sentiment of nationalism in the first half of nineteenth century became a narrow creed with limited ends” . Examine the statement.

Solution

  • Nationalist groups became increasingly intolerant which leads to war.
  • Major European [powers manipulated the nationalist aspirations to further their own imperialist aims.
  • Source of nationalist tension in Europe was the area called Balkans.
  • Idea of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
  • One by one, European nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence.
  • The Balkan people based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality to prove that they were once independent but were subjugated by foreign power.
  • As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkans area became an area of intense conflicts.

Question

Analyze the measures and practices introduced by the French Revolutionaries to create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people.

Solution

  • The ideas of La Patrie (the fatherland) and Le Citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution.
  • A new French flag, tricolor was chosen to replace the Royal standard.
  • Estates general was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly.
  • New Hymns were composed and martyr commemorated all in the name of the nation.
  • A centralized system of administration was introduced, uniform laws were made for all citizens

Question

How did the nationalism and the idea of nation-state emerge? Describe.

Solution

  • Socially and politically, a landed aristocracy was the dominate class on the continent. The members of this class were united by a common way of life that cut across regional division.
  • They speak French for the purpose of diplomacy and in high society.
  • Industrialization began in England in second half of the 18th century but in France and Germany states it occurred only during 1gth century in its wake, new social groups came into being.
  • It was among the educated liberal middle class that ideas of national unity and abolition of aristocratic privileges gained popularity.
  • Nations began to be perceived as having a definite territory, anthem and flag together with a Parliament which was elected by men of middle-class society.

Question

Briefly trace the geographical and ethnic variations of Balkans region. Why did this region become politically very explosive?

Solution

  • The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variations comprising of many states and territories whose inhabitants were commonly known as Slaves.
  • A large part of Balkans was under the control of Ottoman Empire while some other parts were under the control of Russia and Austria causing a complex problem.
  • The spread of ideas of Romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made the region very explosive.
  • The Balkan people based their claim for independence or political rights on nationality and desired to win back their long-lost freedom.
  • The Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry over trade and colonies as well as naval and military might. Each power-Russia, Germany. England, and Austria-Hungry was keen on extending the hold of other powers over the Balkans and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.