NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 1 the Rise of Nationalism in Europe CBSE Board Sample Problems Short Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Explain any three ways in which nationalist feelings were kept alive in Poland in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Solution

Poland had been partitioned at the end of the 18th century by the Great Powers - Russia, Prussia and Austria. Even though it did not exist as an independent territory, nationalist feelings were kept alive:

  • Through music and language- Karol Kurpinski for example celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music, turning folk dances like the polonaise and mazurka into nationalist symbols.
  • Language- After Russian occupation, the Polish language was forced out of schools and Russian was imposed everywhere.
  • After an armed rebellion which was crushed, Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
  • The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against Russian dominance. It was used for Church gatherings and all religious instruction.

Question

“The 1830s were years of great economic hardship in Europe” Examine this statement giving suitable examples.

Solution

Reasons

  • Enormous increase in population which led to widespread unemployment.
  • Population from rural areas migrated to the cities to live in overcrowded slums.
  • Small producers faced with stiff competition from imports of cheap machine-made goods from England.
  • Peasants struggled under the burden of feudal dues and obligations in those regions of Europe where the aristocracy still enjoyed power.
  • Rise of food prices or bad harvest led to widespread pauperism in town and country.
  • (Any three points)

Question

Describe the events of French Revolution which had influenced the people belonging to other parts of Europe.

Solution

Events of French Revolution that influenced the people of other parts of Europe were as follows.

  • When the news of the French Revolution reached different cities of Europe, students and other members of educated middle classes began to set up Jacobin clubs which influenced the French army.
  • The French armies began to carry the idea of nationalism abroad.
  • The Napoleonic Code, introduced in 1804, abolishing privileges and upholding equality and other reforms, exported these new ideas to the European regions under French Control.

Question

Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the 19th century in Europe.

Solution

  • The conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the 19th century in Europe were:
    • There were many states imposed restrictions on the movement of goods, capital and people.
    • Each confederation had its own system of weights and measures that involved time-consuming calculations.
    • Because of countless principalities, there were many check posts where custom duties were paid by the merchants. It resulted in price rise and delay in supply.

Question

How had Revolutionaries spread their ideas in many European states after 1815? Explain with examples.

Solution

  • Giuseppe Mazzini, an Italia n Revolutionary founded two underground societies Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne. Following the footsteps of Mazzini many secret societies were set up in Germany, France, Switzerland and Poland
  • The Romantics used folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances to popularize the true spirit of the nation. For example, Karol Karpinski celebrated the national struggle through his operas and music in Poland. He turned folk dances like polonaise and mazurka into national symbols.
  • Language also played an important role in developing nationalist sentiments. For example, it was mainly used as a weapon of national resistance when Polish Language was forced out of schools and the Russian language was imposed everywhere in Europe.

Question

Explain the role of languages in developing the national sentiments in Europe.

Solution

  • When Russia occupied Poland, the Polish Language was banned and it was replaced by the Russian language.
  • Many members of the clergy in Poland began to use language as a weapon of national resistance.
  • The use of Polish came to be seen as a symbol of the struggle against the Russian dominance.

Question

Define the term Romanticism. How did it facilitate the promotion of nationalist sentiment?

Solution

  • Romanticism was a cultural movement which sought to develop a particular form of nationalism in the following ways:
    • Critical approach towards reason and science: Romantic artists criticized the glorification of reason and science and focused on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings.
    • Folk culture as the spirit of the nation: Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that through folk songs, folk poetry and folk dances, the true spirit of nation could be popularized.
    • Emphasis on vernacular language: They gave emphasis on vernacular language to recover the national spirit and to carry the modern nationalist message to large audience who were mostly illiterate.

Question

What were the effects of Revolutionary upheaval in France in 1830?

Solution

  • The Bourbon dynasty which was restored in 1815 was overthrown by liberal revolutionaries.
  • A constitutional monarchy was installed with Louis Philippe as its head.
  • An uprising was seen in Brussels which led to Belgium breaking away from the United Kingdom of Netherlands.

Question

Describe the role of Giuseppe Mazzini as an Italian Revolutionary.

Solution

  • He founded two secret societies-Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.
  • Members of these societies were like minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and German states.
  • Mazzini՚s relentless opposition to Monarchy and his vision of democratic republic frightened the conservatives.

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