NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 2 Nationalism in India CBSE Board Sample Problems Short Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

‘The Non-Cooperation Movement in the cities gradually slowed down for a variety of reasons’ . Examine the reasons.

Solution

  • The Non-Cooperation Movement in the cities gradually slowed down because:
    • Khadi was more expensive than mass-produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
    • Alternative Indian institutions had to be set up to be used in place of the British institutions. These were slow to come up.
    • So students and teachers began trickling back to government schools and lawyers joined back work in government courts.

Question

Why did the rich peasants take part in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Give three reasons.

Solution

  • The rich peasant communities - like the Patidars of Gujarat and the Jats of Uttar Pradesh supported the Civil Disobedience movement as;
  • They were hard hit by the trade depression and falling prices.
  • Their cash income disappeared and they found it difficult to pay the Government՚s revenue demand.
  • The Government refused to reduce the revenue demand which led to widespread resentment. For them the fight for Swaraj was a struggle against high revenues.

Question

Why did the Non-Cooperation movement in the cities gradually slow down?

Solution

  • Khadi was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people could not afford to buy it.
  • Similarly the boycott of British institutions failed because Indian institutions could not be set up in place of the British ones.
  • The lawyers too joined back work in government courts.

Question

Describe the role of Alluri Sitaram Raju in Andhra Pradesh during 19205.

Solution

  • Ahuri Sitaram Raju has been considered as the leader of the Tribal of Guden hills of Andhra Pradesh. He claimed that he had a variety of special powers like making astrological predictions, healing people and surviving bullet shots.
  • The rebels proclaimed him as an incarnation of God.
  • He was inspired by Gandhiji՚s Non-Cooperation Movement and persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up drinking. But at the same time, he asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force.
  • Under his leadership the rebels used guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj. Finally, he was captured and executed in 1924.

Question

Explain any three measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act.

Solution

Following were the measures taken by the British administration to repress the movement started against the Rowlatt Act:

  • Alarmed by the popular upsurge, British decided to clamp down on nationalists.
  • Local leaders were arrested and Gandhiji was banned from entering Delhi.
  • There were firing on peaceful procession.

Question

How was Rowlatt Act opposed by the people in India? Explain with examples.

Solution

The Rowlatt Act was opposed by Indians in the following ways:

  • A non-violent civil disobedience against the unjust law began.
  • There were hartals and rallies organized in the whole of the country.
  • Workers in the railway workshops went on strike.
  • Shops were closed down in protest.

Question

Describe the views of Mahatma Gandhi on Untouchability and efforts made by him to get Harijans their rights.

Solution

  • Mahatma Gandhi was against untouchability. He declared that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the ‘Untouchables’ Harijan or the children of God.
  • He organized Satyagraha to secure them entry into temples, and access to public well, tanks, roads and schools.
  • He himself cleaned toilets to dignify the work of the bhangi (sweepers) .
  • He persuaded upper caste to change their heart and give up ‘the sin of Untouchability’ .

Question

Why did the Non-Cooperation movement in the cities gradually slow down?

Solution

Ans:

  • Khadi was often more expensive than mass produced mill cloth and poor people not afford to buy it.
  • Similarly the boycott of British institutions failed because Indian institutions could not be set up in place of the British ones.
  • The lawyers too joined back work in government courts.

Question

Discuss the importance of Lahore Congress Session of 1929.

Solution

  • Lahore Congress session was held in December 1929.
  • Under the presidency of Jawaharlal Nehru demand was made for Poorna Swaraj
  • It was declared that 26th Jan. 1930 would be celebrated as Independence Day and people were to take pledge to struggle for complete Independence.

Question

How did Khilafat issue become part of National Movement?

Solution

  • With the defeat of Ottoman Empire in the First World War, there were rumours that Caliph would be deprived of the Ottoman Empire.
  • The Muslims all over the world began to support temporal powers of Caliph. In India too Khilafat Committee was formed under the leadership of Shaukat Ah and Muhammad Ahi.
  • Gandhiji saw this as an opportunity to bring Muslims under the fold of a united action against the British, which finally culminated in the beginning of Non-Cooperation Movement.

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