NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 3 the Making of a Global CBSE Board Sample Problems Short Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Discuss the impact of the First World War on British Economy.

Solution

Post-war economic recovery proved difficult for Britain:

  • While Britain was preoccupied with war, industries had developed in India and Japan. After the war Britain found it difficult to recapture its position of dominance in Indian market and to compete with Japan internationally.
  • Britain had borrowed liberally from the US to finance war expenditures. At the end of the war Britain was burdened with huge external debts.
  • The war had led to an economic boom that is a large increase in demand, production and employment. When the war ended, production contracted and unemployment increased.
  • At the same time the government reduced bloated war expenditures to bring them in line with peacetime revenues.
  • These developments led to huge job losses-in 1921 one in every five British workers was out of work

(Any three points)

Question

Explain the methods adopted by the Europeans to recruit and retain labour in Africa.

Solution

Europeans employers used many methods to recruit and retain labour:

  • Heavy taxes were imposed which could be paid only by working for wages on plantations and mines.
  • Inheritance laws were changed. Only one member of a family was allowed to inherit land. As a result the others were pushed into the labour market.
  • Mineworkers were also confined in compounds and not allowed to move about freely.
  • Cattle disease Rinderpest was introduced which killed 90 % of the cattle. The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihood and so they were forced into the labour market.

(Any three points)

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