NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 4 the Age of Industrialization CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

How did the First World War create a new situation for Indian industries?

Solution

  • British mills were busy with the war effort so Manchester imports into India declined.
  • Indian Mills got a vast home market to supply.
  • Indian factories were called upon to supply war needs like jute bags and uniforms.
  • New factories were set up. Over the war years production boomed.
  • After the war Manchester could never recapture its old position in the Indian Market.

Question

What were the methods used by the British manufacturers to expand their market in India?

Solution

  • Advertisements made a product appear desirable necessary and created new needs. (ii) When Manchester industrialists began selling cloth in India, they put ′ Made in Manchester ″ label on cloth bundles to signify good quality.
  • The labels also had images of gods and goddesses, which showed that the products being sold had divine approval of the gods.
  • In the late 19th century the manufacturers started printing calendars. They were hung in the houses of the poor, tea shops and in offices.
  • Figures of important personages like emperors and nawabs were also used in advertisements and calendars to sell products

Question

Why did the farmers in the European countryside agree to work for the merchants in the 17th and 18th centuries?

Solution

  • In the 17th and 18th centuries merchants from towns in Europe began moving to the countryside, supplying money to the peasants and artisans to produce for the international market.
  • During this time open fields were disappearing and common lands were enclosed. Poor peasants who were earlier dependent on common land had to find a new way of survival.
  • Many had tiny plots of land which could not provide work to all members of the family. It supplemented their incomes.
  • They could now remain in the villages, retain their production on land and produce for the merchants also.
  • The whole family was engaged in production work which further increased their earnings.

Question

Elaborate on the problems faced by Indian weavers in the 18th to 20th centuries.

Solution

  • As the cotton industry developed in England, the industrial groups were worried about export from other countries.
  • At the same time the manufacturers persuaded the company to sell their goods in the colonies and Indian markets as well.
  • The weavers faced twin problems their export market was crumbling and the local market was shrinking.
  • By 18605 weavers faced another problem of shortage of raw cotton of good quality. The American Civil War broke out and cotton suppliers from the US were cut. The cotton exports from
  • India increased and the price of raw cotton increased.
  • By the end of the i9՚ century, weavers in India faced a new problem

Question

Describe the condition of workers in England during the early years of the Industrial Revolution.

Solution

  • When the news of possible jobs spread to the countryside, hundreds came to the cities.
  • Seasonality of jobs meant that after the busy season was over1 the poor were on the streets again.
  • Wages increased in the early 19th century but it did little to help the workers as prices increased at a faster pace. The real value of what the workers earned fell significantly.
  • The income of the workers did not depend on the wage rate alone. There were long periods of unemployment. The number of days of work determined the average income of workers.
  • The fear of unemployment made workers hostile to the new technology. When Spinning Jenny was introduced in the woolen industry they began attacking the new machines.

Question

Explain the major problems faced by the Indian weavers in 1850s.

Solution

The following problems were faced by Indian weavers by the turn of the 19th century.

  • Because of heavy import duty on Indian cotton textile, export market in India collapsed. Local market was flooded with Manchester textile. Being produced by machines, it was cheaper than Indian-made textile. Weavers could not compete with this situation. Weaving regions declined and were desolated.
  • Weavers were not able to procure good-quality raw cotton as most of it was exported. The low-quality raw cotton stood nowhere in the market.
  • With the increase of raw cotton export, price of raw cotton also shot up. Thus, the weavers could not afford to buy it and starved of supplies.
  • Apart from that, factory production in India had started, Machine-made India n goods also flooded the market. Weavers, thus, could not survive in a situation where there were problems all around.

Question

Explain any five ways by which new markets and consumes were created in India by British manufacturers.

Solution

The following are the five ways by which new markets and consumers were created in India by British manufacturers.

  • The products were advertised through newspapers, magazine, hoardings, Street walls, etc.
  • Products like cloth ′ ere labelled with place of manufacturing along with company ′ s name to make the consumer familiar with the product.
  • Images of Indian gods and goddesses were also illustrated to show the association with gods and divide approval of the product by gods.
  • Manufactures also printed calendars to popularize their product. It appealed the people who could not read.
  • Nationalist messages were also used to popularize the product and expand market with the country.

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