NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 4 the Age of Industrialization CBSE Board Sample Problems Short Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

“Small scale production continued to predominate in India.” Why?

Solution

  • Handicraft people adopted new technology that improved production.
  • Productivity per worker increased that speeded up production and reduced labour -demand.
  • Certain groups of weavers who produced fine cloth were in a better condition than weavers of coarse cloth.

Question

Explain the role of calendars in creating new consumers for the British products.

Solution

  • Unlike newspapers and magazines calendars could be used even by people who could not read.
  • They were hung in tea shops and in poor people՚s homes just as much as in offices and middle class apartments.
  • Those who hung the calendars would see them throughout the year.
  • Figures of gods and goddesses were also used in calendars to advertise the product.

Question

What led to the decline of old port cities and the rise of Bombay and Calcutta in colonial India? Explain.

Solution

  • Before the machine age the Indian textile industry, specially cotton and silk goods, dominated the international market.
  • Indian merchants and bankers were involved in the export trade of textiles. Later arrival of European traders like East India Company broke down the network of exports controlled by Indian merchants.
  • It led to decline of old ports like Su rat and Hoogly and the growth of new industrial towns like Bombay and Calcutta.

Question

Describe the pace of the spread of the Industrial revolution in England

Solution

  • Cotton and metal industries grew at a dynamic pace. With the expansion of railway in England demand for iron and steel increased.
  • But new industries did not completely displace traditional industries. Less workforce was employed in technologically advanced industries.
  • Ordinary and small innovations were done in non-mechanized sectors like food processing, glasswork, furniture etc.
  • Technological changes were slow to occur as industrialists feared using machines. Repair of machines was costly and were not as effective as claimed.

Question

Why did merchants in Europe go to the countryside in the 17th century?

Solution

Demand for goods increased in Europe but merchants faced problems in increasing production as:

  • The urban crafts and trade guilds were very powerful. These were associations of producers who trained the crafts people, regulated the prices and maintained control over production.
  • The new entrants were barred from entering the guilds.
  • Thus the entry of new European merchants into the trade was restricted.
  • Rulers gave monopoly rights to the guilds to produce and trade in specific products. It was therefore difficult for new producers to find space in the towns.
  • Therefore merchants turned to the countryside to increase production of goods.

Question

Who were the jobbers? Explain their main functions.

Solution

Jobbers were the paid workers of the industrialists. They were old and most trusted workers. The following were the main functions of the jobbers.

  • Jobbers got the people from villages, ensured their jobs and helped them to settle in the city.
  • They often helped the workers by providing them money in time of crises.

Question

Explain the effects of East India Company՚s exploitative methods of asserting monopoly over trade.

Solution

The following were the effects of the East India Company՚s exploitative methods of asserting monopoly over trade.

  • Many peasants and weavers deserted the villages and had to migrate to other villages.
  • In many places, there were revolts and clashes against the Company and its officials.
  • Weavers began refusing loans and closed down their workshops. They took to agricultural labourers.

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