NCERT History Class 10 Chapter 5 Print Culture and the Modern World CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

How did the printing press lead to a new visual culture in India?

Solution

  • Painters like Raja Ravi Verma produced images for mass circulation.
  • Cheap prints and calendars became easily available and could be bought even by the poor to decorate their homes.
  • These prints began shaping popular ideas about modernity, tradition, religion, politics and culture.
  • By 1870s caricatures and cartoons were being published in journals and newspapers commenting on social and political issues.
  • Some cartoons made fun of Indians blindly copying the west and criticized British rule over India while imperial caricatures made fun of Indian nationalists.

Question

Briefly describe Indian manuscripts and their drawbacks.

Solution

  • India had a rich tradition of manuscripts written in Sanskrit, Arabic, Persian as well as vernacular languages.
  • They were copied on palm leaves or on hand made paper and were sometimes beautifully illustrated.
  • Manuscripts were however, highly expensive and fragile.
  • They had to be handled carefully and could not be read easily as the script was written in different styles.
  • So, manuscripts were not used widely in daily life.

Question

Write about the impact of the printing press on the lives of women in Europe.

Solution

  • Women became important as readers as well as writers.
  • Penny magazines and manuals teaching housekeeping and other such topics were printed especially for women.
  • Women read as well as wrote novels.
  • Some popular women writers were, Jane Austen, the Bronte sisters and George Elliot.
  • Their writings defined a new type of woman: a person with will, strength of personality, determination and the power to think

Question

What was the importance of the printing press in the spread of the Protestant Reformation?

Solution

  • In 1517, the religious reformer Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing many of the practices of the Catholic Church.
  • A printed copy of this was posted on a church door in Wittenberg in Germany.
  • His writings were read and reproduced in vast numbers using the printing press.
  • This lead to a division within the Church and to the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.
  • Scholars believe that print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere and helped spread the ideas leading to the Reformation.

Question

Who brought the wood block printing system to Europe? Why did it become popular?

Solution

  • Marco Polo brought the Chinese wood block printing to Europe when he returned there from China in 1295.
  • Handwritten manuscripts could not satisfy the increasing demand for books.
  • Copying was expensive, laborious and time consuming.
  • Manuscripts were fragile and awkward to handle so could not be carried around and read easily.
  • So, wood block printing became popular and by the early 15th century it was used to print textiles and other kinds of materials.

Question

Martin Luther remarked, “Printing is the ultimate gift of God and the greatest one.” Explain his remarks in the light of religious reforms that took place in Europe.

Solution

Religious reforms that took place in Europe were as follows.

  • Martin Luther wrote Ninety Five Theses criticizing the practices and rituals of the Roman Catholic Church. These were reproduced in large numbers and read by a large number of people.
  • This led to the division within the church into Catholics and Protestants.
  • This print brought about a new intellectual atmosphere, which helped in the spread of new ideas. This also paved the way for the reformation in the practices of the church.
  • The message in the Bible began to be reinterpreted.
  • Print encouraged people to think reasonably and question the customs followed in the Church, which enraged the Roman Catholics.

Question

“Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside.” Support the statement with any five suitable examples.

Solution

Printing technology gave women a chance to share their feelings with the world outside. The following are the examples supporting the statement.

  • Rashundari Devi, a young married girl in a very orthodox household, learnt to read in the secrecy of her kitchen. Later she wrote her autobiography Amar Jiban which was published in 1876. It was the first full length autobiography in Bengali.
  • Many other women writers, like Kailashbhashini Debi, highlighted experiences of women like their imprisonment at home, ignorance and unjust treatment in their writings.
  • Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai narrated the plight of upper cast Hindu women, especially the widows.
  • Tamil writers expressed the poor status of women.
  • By the early twentieth century, journals written by women became popular, which highlighted issues like women՚s education, widowhood and widow- remarriage. Some of them highlighted fashion lessons to women and entertainment through short storing and serialized novels.