NCERT Politics Science Class 10 Chapter 1 Power Sharing CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

Which three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamil accepted and met , could had settled the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka for good . Explain.

Solution

Recognition of Tamil as an official language, regional autonomy, equal opportunity in securing education and jobs.

  • In order to protest for their demand they started a political struggle in the way of conflict with the government.
  • By 1987 political organizations was formed demanding an independent Tamil alarm in Northern and Eastern part of Sri Lanka.
  • The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict which turned into a civil war.
  • As a result thousands of people of both communities were killed causing a terrible setback to the social cultural and economic life of the country.

Question

What are the advantages of horizontal power sharing? Explain with example.

Solution

  • The power is shared among different organs of government equally.
  • Horizontal power sharing places all the organs of the government i.e.. legislature, executive and judiciary at the same level.
  • Under this kind of power sharing no organ can exercise unlimited powers.
  • This system is also known as systems of checks and balances.
  • Exam pie, in India though the ministers and government officials exercise power, but they are responsible to the parliament or state legislatures. Similarly, although the judges are appointed by the executive but they can check the functioning of executive of laws made by the legislatures.

Question

What changes were done in the constitution of Belgium?

Solution

  • Number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government.
  • Some special laws required the support if majority of members from each linguistic group.
  • Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.
  • The state governments are not subordinate to the central government.
  • Apart from the central and state government there is a third kind of government this is called community government.

Question

What changes were done in the constitution of Belgium?

Solution

  • Number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government.
  • Some special laws required the support if majority of members from each linguistic group.
  • Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.
  • The state governments are not subordinate to the central government.
  • Apart from the central and state government there is a third kind of government this is called community government.

Question

Explain the major forms of power sharing in modern democracies.

Solution

  • Power sharing among the different organs of government. (Horizontal power sharing)
  • Power sharing among governments at different levels.
  • Power sharing among different social groups.
  • Power sharing among political parties, pressure groups and movements.
  • In a democracy we find interest groups such as businessman, farmers an Industrial worker.

Question

Explain how power is shared among between different organs of government.

Solution

  • In democracy, power is shared among different organs of government, i.e.. legislature, executive and judiciary through the horizontal distribution of power.
  • It is so because it allows different organs of government to be placed at the same level to exercise different powers. In horizontal division, different organs exercise their power based on the concept of separation of powers such as legislature makes laws, executive enforces these laws and judiciary interprets these laws.
  • This results in balance of power among different organs of government. No organ can exercise unlimited power as each organ checks the other.
  • Hence, in horizontal division the concept of checks and balance is followed.
  • The power is shared between different organs of the government in horizontal form of power sharing.

Question

Bring out any two sharp contrasts between Belgium and Sri Lankan democracies.

Solution

Sri Lanka and Belgium are both democratic countries yet have a very diverse social set-up. Both the countries have adopted very different approaches when it comes to power sharing.

  • Belgium produced an ideal example of democratic system. It adopted the policy of accommodation of social and ethnics divisions. On the other hand, Sri Lanka also adopted democratic system but followed majoritarian policies.
  • Under the Belgium model of democracy, power was shared among two ethnic groups. Sri Lanka favoured the interests of the majority Sinhala community.
  • In Belgium, both the groups had equal share in working of government but in Sri Lanka the minority community was isolated.
  • To maintain political stability and unity, equal representation was provided to both the groups. Apart from that, community government of both the ethnic groups also existed at the local level. Sri Lanka, however, had no such arrangement.
  • Belgium constitution was amended four times before arriving at a final draft to prevent civil strife. In Sri Lanka, majoritarianism led to civil war for twenty long years.

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