NCERT Politics Science Class 10 Chapter 2 Gender, Religion and Caste CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

How is casteism harmful to the democratic ideals?

Solution

  • Caste system is very harmful for politics because it damages democratic ideals.
  • It violates and goes against the principles of the constitution and democracy that is equality, secularism and fraternity
  • Due to cast, vote bank politics is given preference. In India the economic issues are forced to the background by leaders who seek support on the basis of caste. There is over emphasis on caste interest loyalty rather than National interest.
  • It disturbs mechanization of the polity.
  • The government at the local level seek to retain the traditional domination of the dominant caste.
  • This prevents the emergence of new domestic culture of free and equal citizenship.
  • Castiesm leads to chaos and bargaining in party politics and ministry formation.
  • It leads to violence and polarization on caste lines hence it is very harmful for democracy and country as well.

Question

How have caste and the caste system undergone changes in modern India?

Solution

  • Social reformers like Jyotiba Phule, Mahatma Gandhi and Periyar Ramaswamy Naicker have carried out movements to end caste inequalities.
  • Economic development and urbanizations have broken caste hierarchies in India.
  • Growth of literacy and education as well as occupational mobility have also changed the mindset of people towards caste.
  • The Constitution of India prohibits caste based discrimination.
  • Practicing untouchability is a punishable offence in India.

Question

Why is India referred to as a secular state?

Solution

  • India has no official religion, unlike Sri Lanka with Buddhism and Pakistan with Islam.
  • Our constitution does not give special status to any religion. All are treated as equal.
  • The Constitution provides the right to freedom of religion giving every one freedom to preach, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any.
  • The Constitution prohibits discrimination on the basis of religion.
  • Constitution allows the state to intervene in religion to ensure equality. For eg. untouchability has been prohibited.

Question

What are the various ways in which women in India face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression?

Solution

  • The literacy rate among women is only 54 percent compared to 76 percent among men as many parents prefer to educate only their sons.
  • The proportion of women among the highly paid and valued jobs is very less.
  • The Equal Wages Act provides that equal wages should be paid for equal work. However, in many areas of work like sports, cinema, agriculture and factories, women are paid less than men for the same work.
  • Girl children are aborted before being born as many parents prefer to have sons rather than daughters. Due to this the sex ratio in our country has fallen to 927 girls to every 1000 boys. In some regions in India this ratio has fallen below 850.
  • Women face various kinds of harassment, exploitation and violence inside as well as outside their homes in both rural and urban areas.

Question

What are the different forms that communalism can take in politics?

Solution

  • Communalism involves religious prejudice, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one՚s religion over other religions.
  • A communal mind often leads to a quest for political dominance of one՚s own religious community.
  • Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism.
  • In electoral politics, this often involves special appeal to the interests or emotions of votes of one religion in preference to others.
  • Sometimes communalism in India takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre.

Question

Briefly describe the caste system of India.

Solution

  • Unlike gender and religion, caste division is unique to India.
  • In this system hereditary occupational division was sanctioned by rituals.
  • The members of the same caste group formed a social community that followed similar occupations, married within the caste and did not mingle with the other caste.
  • The caste system was based on exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘out caste’ groups.
  • These groups were subjected to inhuman practice of untouchability.

Question

What forms does communalism take in politics?

Solution

  • Communalism is a strong sense of belonging to particular community especially a religious community, which often leads to extreme behavior or violence towards others. It cannot tolerate and respect people belonging to different religious communities.
  • There are different forms of communalism in politics as follows.
    • Communalism in everyday beliefs: It is the most common form of communalism and can be in the form of religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief that one religion is superior to other religions. Communalism as Majoritarian Dominance and Political
    • Dominance: A communal mind often leads to quest for political dominance of one՚s own religious community. For people belonging to the majority community this comes out as
    • ‘Majoritarian dominance’ for those belonging to the minority community, it can take form of a desire to form a separate political unit.
    • Communalism as political mobilization: Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent form of communalism.
    • This involves the use of sacred symbols, emotional appeals and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in political arena.
    • Communalism in the form of communal violence: Sometimes, communalism takes its most ugly form of communal violence, riots and massacre. For instance, India and Pakistan suffered some of the worst communiaI riots at the time of the partition.
    • To sum up, it can be said that communalism leads to the belief that people belonging to different religions cannot live as equal Citi Question ens within one nation. Either one of them has to dominate the rest or they have to form different nations.

Question

Describe any four aspects of life in which women are discriminated against in Indian society.

Solution

The following points sum up how women are still discriminated against and oppressed in India.

  • Literacy rate: The first and foremost discrimination is in the field of education where the literacy rate among women is only 66 per cent when compared to a high 82 per cent in males. Even otherwise, parents prefer educating spending their resources of education of a male child rather than a female child.
  • Sex ratio: The sex ratio in India is as low as 940 females per 1000 males. The proportion of women as compared to men is very low. A major reason behind this is that parents prefer having a male child over a female child keeping in view the future perspective.
  • Unpaid work: The proportion of highly-paid women is very less when compared to highly-paid men. Though on an average, Indian women work one hour more than men every day but they are not equally paid and thus their work is also not often valued as much as that of men.
  • Domestic violence: Women every day in Indian society are harassed, exploited, and subjected to all sorts of violence behind the closed doors. Both in urban and rural areas, domestic violence is one of the most prominent form of discrimination faced by women. Many cases of domestic violence and dowry deaths are reported in the media every day.
  • Female foeticide: In India, a male child is considered a blessing and a female child is considered a bane. This has come to an extent where the female child is killed in the womb of the mother. This killing of Foetus is known as foeticide. Female foeticide is prevalent in both urban and rural areas.

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