NCERT Politics Science Class 10 Chapter 3 Political Parties CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

′ A decline in the ideological differences among parties in most parts of the world has been seen. Which challenge of political party is being referred to here? Enumerate some of the features of the identified challenge.

Solution

This challenge being referred to here is the lack of meaningful choices to the voters.

Some of the features of this challenge are

  • In recent years there has been a decline in the ideological differences among parties in most parts of the world.
  • They agree on more fundamental aspects but differ only in details on how policies are to be framed and implemented.
  • In our country to the differences among all the major parties on the economic policies have reduced.
  • Those who want really different policies have no option available to them. Sometimes people cannot even elect very different leaders either, because the same set of leaders keep shifting from one party to another.

Question

What are some of the functions that political parties perform?

Solution

  • Political parties contest elections.
  • Parties put forward different policies and programmes and the voters choose from them.
  • Parties play a decisive role in making laws for the country.
  • Parties form and run governments.
  • Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition to the party is in power.
  • Parties shape public opinion.
  • Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes.

Question

What is a national political party? What is the criteria for a party to be recognized as a national political party in lndia? Name any one national party.

Solution

  • Some country wide parties which have their units in various states are called ‘national parties’ .
  • By and large all these units follow the same policies, programs and strategy that is decided at the national level.
  • A party that secures at least 6 % of total votes in Lok Sabha elections or assembly elections in four states and;
  • Also wins at least four seats in Lok Sabha is recognized as a national party.
  • Examples-BJP, Congress, BSP, NCP

Question

What is the role of opposition party in democracy?

Solution

  • The opposition party performs the following role in democracy
  • It provides constructive criticism of the government against the wrong steps taken by the ruling party
  • Opposition raises and highlights issues of public interests and tries to create a base for itself by redressing their grievances.
  • It keeps a check on the dictatorial behaviour of the ruling party.
  • Opposition safeguards the liberty and rights of people by monitoring the activities of the ruling party.
  • It generate public opinion and gain public applause.

Question

Modern democracies cannot exist without political party. Evaluate the statement with the help of relevant arguments.

Solution

  • We cannot think modern democracies without political parties.
  • In case there are no political parties, then the elections will be of no use, no one will be able to make any promises to the people about any major policy changes. The government may be formed but its utility will remain uncertain.
  • Elected representatives will be accountable to their constituency for what they do in the locality, but no one will be responsible for how the countries will run in case of no political party.
  • Even the nonparty based elections to the panchayats, it is generally noticed that the villages split into more than one factions each of which puts up a panel of likeminded people. This is why we find political parties almost in all countries of the world.
  • Political parties work on policies and programmes to promote collective good and influence people to know why their policy is better than others.
  • They are then bound to implement the policies by winning popular support through elections
  • They reflect fundamental division in our society.
  • The absence of political parties would affect a democracy badly.
  • The interest of all the people would not reach the Parliament and therefore some sections of people would remain behind the mainstream and they won՚t get all the welfare measures.

Question

What do you mean by the term defection? What measures were adopted to prevent this practice?

Solution

  • Defection in politics means moving of a person from one party to another body for some personal benefit. It means changing party allegiance from the party on which a person got elected to a different party. It happens when a legislature member after having been elected from a particular party leaves it and join in another party.
  • Measures adopted to prevent this practice are as follows
  • The constitution was amended to prevent elected MLA and MPs from changing party . This was done because many elected representatives were indulging in defection in order to become ministers or for cash rewards
  • Now the law says that if any MLA or MP changes parties, he or she will lose seat in the Legislature.
  • The new Laws have brought defection down and has made this dissent even more difficult. Now members have to accept whatever party leaders say.

Question

What is a multi-party system? Why has India adopted a multi-party system? Explain how the multi-party benefits democracy in India?

Solution

  • When several parties compete for power and more than two parties have a reasonable chance of coming to power either on their own strength for in alliance with others, we call it a multi-party system
  • India adopted multi-party system because the social and geographical diversity in such a large country is not easily absorbed by 2 or even 3 parties.
  • This is to allow a variety of interest and opinion to enjoy political representation.
  • Multi parties have their own policies, they keep people informed about political activities.
  • The multi-part has given the opportunity to a variety of interest and opinions to enjoy political representation. Multiparty is more representative and accountable to democratic ideals. It creates a system of internal checks and balances within coalition government.

Question

Suggest and explain any five measures to reform political parties.

Solution

The following reforms could be suggested in order to strengthen parties so that they perform their functions well:

  • Regulation of party՚s internal affairs: A law should be made to regulate the internal affairs of political parties. It should be made compulsory for political parties to maintain a register of their members, to follow their own constitution, to have an independent authority, etc.
  • State funding: There should be state funding of elections. The government should give money to parties to support their election expenses to avoid corruption.
  • Pressure of public opinion: Political parties can be reformed if people put pressure on them. This can be done through petitions, propaganda and agitations. Pressure groups and media play an important role in this.
  • Ban on political parties based on religion and caste: The Election Commission should ban the political parties which are formed on the basis of religion and caste.
  • Ensure women participation: It should be made mandatory for all political parties to allot one-third of the tickets to women to ensure their decisive voice in decision making. If the above mentioned suggestions are taken into consideration, it can be ensured that these could lead to some improvement in the working of the political parties.

Question

‘Political parties are a necessary condition for a democracy.’ Analyse the statement with examples.

Solution

In a democratic set-up, political parties are required because without political parties:

  • Every candidate in the elections will be independent. No promises could be made and the utility of the government formed will remain uncertain.
  • No one will be responsible for running the country. Elected representatives will only be accountable to their constituency.
  • There will be no agency to gather and present different views on various issues to the government.
  • No one will be responsible for bringing various representatives together so as to form a responsible government.
  • There will be no mechanism to support the government, make policies and justify or oppose them.

Question

Write about the lack of internal democracy within political parties

Solution

  • There is concentration of power in one or a few hands in most political parties.
  • Parties do not keep membership registers, do not hold meetings or hold internal elections regularly.
  • Ordinary members do not get proper information on the party activities and policies.
  • Those who disagree with the leadership find it difficult to continue in the party.
  • More than party loyalty, personal loyalty to the leader becomes more important.

Question

How can political parties be reformed?

Solution

  • The constitution was amended to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. This is called anti-defection law.
  • The Supreme Court made it mandatory for every candidate to file an affidavit giving details of his property and criminal cases pending against him.
  • The Election Commission made it necessary for political parties to hold elections and file their Income tax Returns.

Question

What is the challenge of money and muscle power faced by political parties?

Solution

  • The role of money and muscle power in parties, especially during elections.
  • Since parties are focused only on winning elections, they tend to use short-cuts to win elections.
  • They tend to nominate those candidates who are or can raise lots of money.
  • Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party.
  • In some cases parties support criminals who can win elections.
  • Democracies all over the world are worried about the increasing role of rich people and big companies in democratic politics.

Question

Explain the challenge of Dynastic Succession faced by political parties.

Solution

  • Most political parties do not practice open and transparent procedure for their functioning; there are very few ways for an ordinary worker to rise to the top in a party.
  • Those who happen to be the leaders are in a position of unfair advantage to favour people close to them or even their family members.
  • In many parties the top positions are always controlled by members of one family. This is unfair to other members of that party.
  • This is also bad for democracy, since people who do not have adequate experience or popular support come to occupy positions of power.
  • This tendency is present in some measure all over the world, including in some of the older democracies.

Question

What are the main functions of political parties?

Solution

  • Political parties contest elections. In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by the parties.
  • Parties՚ forward different policies and programs and voters choose them from. A government is expected to base its policies on the line taken by the Ruling Party.
  • Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country. Laws are debated and passed in the legislature. But most of the members of legislature are the members of political parties.
  • Parties form and run the Governments.
  • Those parties that lose in the elections play the role of opposition of the parties in power, by voicing different views and criticizing government for its failure or wrong policies.

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