NCERT Politics Science Class 10 Chapter 4 Federalism CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

In Panchayati Raj system one third of the seats have been reserved for women, do you feel that the same be done for State legislators and Parliament? Support your answer with argument.

Solution

In favour:

  • Many feminists and women movements feel that unless women control powers their problems will not get adequate attention. One way to ensure this is to have more women as elected representatives.
  • One way to solve this problem is to make it legally binding to have fare proportion of women in the elected bodies. This is what the Panchayati Raj has done in India. One third of seats in local government bodies like Panchayats and Municipalities are now reserved for women
  • Women՚s organizations and activists have been demanding a similar reservation of at least one third of seats in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies for women. A bill with this proposal has been pending before the parliament for more than a decade.

In against:

  • Quota is not an answer to women՚s problem. It discriminates on the basis of gender, violation of the democratic right of people to choose their representatives.
  • The reservation will only help elite women who are proxy of powerful men. Women candidates may not get party ticket to contest from unreserved constituency. Therefore, there is no need for reservation for women in the legislatures.
  • Political parties should be made responsible to ensure distribution of tickets in such a manner that the various social and economic strata of society, specially marginalized and disadvantaged groups get adequate representation.

Question

India has a large cultural, regional and religious diversity, but there is unity among people. What factors are responsible for this? Elaborate.

Solution

The real success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country. This ensured that the spirit of federalism, respect for diversity and desire for living together became shared ideals in our country.

  • Spirit of federalism: The constitution clearly provided a threefold distribution of legislative powers between the union government and state governments.
  • Respect for diversity: The creation of linguistic states was the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country. This was done to ensure that people who spoke the same language lived in the same state. Some states were created not on the basis of language but to recognize differences based on culture, ethnicity or geography.
  • Desire for living together: The constitution declared India as a union of state although it did not use the word federation. In India we have holding together federation.
  • Absence of national language: Our constitution did not give the status of national language to anyone language. Hindi was identified as the official language. Besides Hindi there are 21 other languages recognized as scheduled languages as safe guard to protect other languages.
  • Independent judiciary: The judiciary plays an important role in overseeing the implementation of constitution provisions and procedures

Question

Explain the power sharing among Government at different levels.

Solution

The powers of Government have been divided into three lists.

  • Union list: It contains 97 subjects like Defence, foreign affairs, railways, posts and telegraphs, foreign trade and currency etc. The union government alone can make laws on subjects mentioned in this list.
  • State list: It includes 66 subjects like police and jails, agriculture, public health, local govt. trade and commerce, liquor etc. The state government alone can make laws on subjects mentioned in the list
  • State list: It includes 66 subjects like police and jails, agriculture, public health, local govt. trade and commerce, liquor etc. The state government alone can make laws on subjects mentioned in the list
  • Concurrent list: It includes 47 subjects like education, forest and trade union, marriage and divorce etc. Both union Government as well as state Government can make laws on subjects mentioned in this list. In case of conflict, the law made by the union government will prevail. Residuary powers lie with the center. In such cases only parliament has the power to make laws on these subjects.

Question

Explain any four features of federalism.

Solution

  • A federation is a country in which the powers are divided between the union and its constituents. India is an example of holding together federation, where the country decides to create constituent units, thereby dividing the powers and duties between the centre and the states.
  • The following are the five provisions that make India a full-fledged federation.
    • Two or more levels of government: We have a federal system whereby the constitution has more than two tiers of the government, viz, the Union
    • Government, State Governments and Local Government. This implies that there are more than two levels of government administration among which powers are divided and duties are given.
    • Three Lists: The powers are divided between the Centre and the States by three Lists: Union list, State List and Concurrent list.
    • Union List deals with the issues relating to the Centre, State List deals with the issues relating to the States and Concurrent List deals with the matters of both the Centre and the States.
    • Rigid Constitution: The Government of India is governed by the Constitution of India and it is considered the Supreme Power in the Country. It is not an easy task to amend the constitution.
  • For a constitutional provision to be amended, it requires ratification by half of the State Legislatures, failing which the Constitution cannot be amended.
    • Bicameral Legislature: India has a bicameral legislature which means that the Parliament consists of two houses, viz, the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. One represents the country and the other represents the interest of the constituent states.
    • Financial Autonomy: The revenue sources of both the Centre and States have been clearly defined, that ensures financial autonomy to both the Centre and the States. In layman՚s language, the Centre and the State have different sources of income, which means they are independent of each other when it comes to revenue.
    • Independent Judiciary: Independent judiciary is the essence of federal government. Here, courts have the power to interpret the constitution and the powers of the different levels of government. In India, the highest court — the Supreme Court — acts as an umpire if a dispute arises between the different levels of government in the exercise of their respective powers,