NCERT Politics Science Class 10 Chapter 5 Outcomes of Democracy CBSE Board Sample Problems Long Answer (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

How has democracy accommodate Social diversities? Explain any three values you learn from accommodation of diversity.

Solution

  • Democracy usually developed a procedure to conduct competition . It reduces the possibility of social tensions becoming explosive on violent.
  • No society can fully resolve conflict among different groups, but we can certainly learn to respect these differences and we can also a evolve mechanism to negotiate the differences.
  • Democracies are well suited to produce the outcome. The majority always need to work with the minority to represent the general view.
  • Democracy is not simply Rule By majority. The majority always need to work with the minority so that government functions to represent the general view
  • It ensures that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community.

Question

Should democracy be judged by its outcomes? Give any five reasons.

Solution

  • In Modern Times democracy is the most powerful form of Government, however to know about the successful working of a democracy it is essential to identify the outcome of a democratic system
  • Democracy gives an examination that never gets over. As it passes one test it has to undergo another, as people get some benefits of democracy they asked for more to make democracy even better
  • When we ask people about the way democracy functions, they will always come up with more expectation and more complaints.
  • The fact that people are complaining is itself a testimony to the success of democracy. It shows that people are aware and can critically examine those in power.
  • A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of democracy.
  • It transform people from mere subject to citizens taking active part in the democratic process.

Question

Constant complaint by people can be seen as a testimony to the success of democracy. Explain.

Solution

  • Complaints highlight the awareness of the people and their expectations from the system that has been put in place.
  • It reflect that citizens are not overawed by those in power and can objectively and critically examine the difference they have made.
  • It is a measure of their participation in public debates.
  • A public expression of dissatisfaction with democracy shows the success of the democratic project.
  • It shows that people have transformed themselves from being subject to being citizen.

Question

What are the various characteristics of democracy?

Solution

  • Democracy gives power to people to elect their government, control that and remove it from power.
  • It allows people to choose their representatives through elections and ensure that all its citizens have a say in the functioning of the government.
  • There is no monopoly of power by a person or a party.
  • Different political parties compete with each other in a democratic form.
  • If the government does not fulfill its all promises or fails to live up to the expectation of the people than it is very likely that it will not get reelected.
  • Democracy ensures that the rights of its people are protected by the state and the government functions according to the law.
  • In a democratic setup there is no distinction between people based on religion, caste, colour or caste.
  • Equal opportunities are provided to all to be educated to grow as good citizens and to earn their living.
  • Criticism and feedback are two important mechanism of democracy to control the government.
  • The government policies are scrutinized and evaluated by the people through the media and the opposition party.

Question

Discuss the role of citizens in a democracy.

Solution

  • Democracy continues to be democracy as long as people have a chance to be part of majority at any point of time. If someone is debarred from being part of majority on the basis of birth then democracy is said to be concentrated in the hands of a few.
  • For a strong and healthy democratic setup, citizens have to be interested in the public affairs and issue of the country.
  • They have to perform their duties also.
  • They have a significant role in democracy as they exercise their rights and freedom and take part in decision making process directly or indirectly through their elected representatives.
  • They should have consideration for other peoples need and interests.

Question

Explain any four areas where democracy has failed.

Solution

  • If Democracy is expected to produce good government then it is fair to expect that they would also produce development.
  • Evidence shows that many democracies did not fulfill this expectation. The inability of democracy to achieve higher economic development worries us.
  • Democracy is a government of the people hence one can expect it to reduce economic disparities. But it is a bitter truth that even when a country achieved economic growth, wealth is not distributed in such a way that all citizens of the country will have share and lead a better life. Most of the democrats of the world have miserably failed on this issue.
  • Democracy has also failed on the issue of poverty reduction. A smaller number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and income. Those at the bottom of the society have very little to depend upon . The income have been declining.
  • Democracies often frustrate the need of the people and often ignore the demands of a majority of its population. The routine talks of corruption are enough to convince that democracy is not free of the evil.

Question

Why democracy is not considered simply a rule of majority?

Solution

Due to the following reasons democracy is not considered simply a rule of majority

  • ln a democratic set up the majority always needs to work with the minority, so that government represents a general view.
  • Majority and minority opinions are not permanent.
  • The rule of majority does not become rule by majority community in terms of religion, race linguistic groups etc.
  • Rule of majority means that in case of every decision and election different persons and groups may and can form a majority.
  • Democracy remains democracy only when every citizen of a country has a chance of being majority at some point of time.
  • lf someone is barred from being in majority of the basis of birth that is on the basis of caste and religion then that democracy rules are not applicable for that person or groups

Question

How are democratic governments better than the other forms of governments? Compare.

Solution

Democracy is not a mere form of government. It is a form of society as well as a social order. It is always preferable and superior to any other form of government because of the following reasons.

  • Democracy promotes equality among citizens: In democracy, each citizen is given equal rights and freedoms. There is no discrimination on the basis of religion, caste, colour, etc.
  • Democracy aims at equitable distribution of incomes and products among citizens.
  • Democracy enhances dignity of individuals: Democracy permits political equality for all its citizens. In democracy, there is absence of any domination and conflicts Thus, it implies every citizen enjoys dignity and freedom in democracy.
  • Democracy improves the quality of decision-making. As democracy is based on deliberation and negotiations, it improves the quality of decision-making. In a democracy, every citizen takes part in the decision-making process, either directly or indirectly through the elected representatives.
  • Democracy develops competitive attitude: Democracy usually develops a procedure to conduct competition among the social differences. This reduces the possibility of social tensions becoming explosive or violent.
  • Democracy evolves mechanisms to negotiate: No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts among different groups, but we can certainly learn to respect these differences and also evolve mechanisms to negotiate the differences. Democracies are best suited to produce this outcome.

Question

How is democracy accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens? Analyse.

Solution

There is no denying the fact that democracy is accountable and responsive to the needs and expectations of the citizens. Democracy produces an accountable government in the following ways.

  • A democratic government ensures that people are able to choose their leaders and keep a check on them.
  • In an accountable government, people have the right to elect the leaders to form government and if possible they participate in the decision-making process.
  • Citizens also have the right to evaluate the decision-making process. Democracy produces a responsive government in the following ways.
  • Democracy produces a responsible government which is responsible for satisfying the needs and aspirations of people.
  • It promotes the formation of public opinion, needs and expectations of the citizens.
  • There are proper deliberations and negotiations before arriving at any decision.

Question

Does democracy lead to reduction of inequality and poverty? Explain.

Solution

  • Democracies are base on political equality and all individuals have equal rights regarding election of representatives.
  • However, we find growing economic inequalities in Democracies.
  • A small number of ultra-rich enjoy a highly disproportionate share of wealth and incomes, while the poor find it difficult to fulfil their basic needs of life like food, shelter and clothing.
  • The poor constitute a high proportion of our voters and no party would like to lose their votes.
  • However, democratically elected governments do not appear to be keen to address the problem of poverty as people may expect.

Question

Why democracy is considered a better form of government than a dictatorship?

Solution

  • Democracy promotes equality among citizens
  • It enhances the dignity of the individual.
  • Democracy improves the quality of decision making.
  • It provides a method to resolve conflicts.
  • It also allows room to correct mistakes

Question

How does democracy accommodate social diversity and ensure peace and harmony in society?

Solution

  • Democracy develops a harmonious social life. Democracies accommodate various social divisions.
  • Democracies usually develop a procedure to conduct their competition. This reduces the possibility of these tensions becoming explosive or violent.
  • In democracies people learn to respect the differences and also evolve mechanism to negotiate the differences.
  • The majority always needs to work with the minority so that government functions to represent the general view.
  • Democracy has ability to handle social differences, divisions and conflict.

Question

How does democracy assure dignity of women and prevent caste inequalities?

Solution

  • In case of dignity of women, most societies across the world were historically male dominated societies.
  • Long struggles by women have created some sensitivity today that respect to and equal treatment of women are necessary ingredients of a democratic society.
  • That does not mean that women are actually always treated with respect. But once the democratic principle is recognized, it becomes easier for women to wage a struggle against what is now unacceptable legally and morally.
  • Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity.
  • There are instances still of caste-based inequalities and atrocities, but these lack the moral and legal foundations.

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