Social Science Class 7 Major Test 8 Questions and Answers Paper Part 3 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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29. Define Rock Cycle with the help of a diagram.

  • Rocks pass through a cycle of transformation. Magma rising from below the earth՚s surface solidifies to form igneous rocks these rocks are broken into sediments to form sedimentary rocks — both these rocks are converted into metamorphic rocks due to extreme heat and pressure — when rocks melt due to heat, new magma is formed. This process is called rock cycle.
Rock Cycle Diagram

30. Explain the spread of Bhakti movement in south India.

Bhakti movement

  • The term ‘Bhakti’ means devotion to some supreme entity or authority with exceptional powers or knowledge.
  • The Early Medieval period saw the rise and spread of the Bhakti Movement in South India, which later spread to North India.
  • Led in South India by two streams of popular saints called Nayanars and Alvars.
  • The Nayanars worshipped Shiva and Alvars worshipped Vishnu.
  • The Bhakti saints preached the message of love through hymns.
  • They preached popular languages such as Tamil, Kannada. Marathi, Hindi and Telugu. Their teachings were simple and drew inspiration from the Bhagwad Purana and the Bhagwad Gita.
  • The Bhakti saints preached the message of love through hymns. They were followers of either the Saguna School (believers of God with a form) or the Nirguna School (believers of a formless God) of Bhakti.

Common Teaching of Bhakti Saints:

Bhakti teaching emphasized:

  • Gaining true knowledge from a guru or teacher in order to attain salvation.
  • Devotion to one God (Monotheism)
  • Equality irrespective of caste, colour and creed.
  • Brotherhood.
  • The virtues of kindness and purity of heart and mind.

31. How did Bengali develop as a regional language?

  • Bengali, a regional language, grew in course of time.
  • From the eighth century. Bengal became the center of a regional kingdom under the Palas.
  • Between the 14th and 16th centuries, Bengal was ruled by Sultans.
  • In 1586, Akbar conquered Bengal while Persian was the language of administration. Bengali developed as a regional language.
  • Although Bengali is derived from Sanskrit, it passed through several stages of evolution.
  • Early Bengali literature may be divided into two categories.
  • The first includes translations of the Sanskrit epics, the Mangala Kavyas and Bhakti literature such as biographies of Chaitnayadeva, the second includes Nath literature such as songs of Maynamati and Gopichand, stories concerning the worship of Dharma Thakur and fairy tales, folk tales and ballads.
  • The Cult of Pir (a spiritual guide) became popular in Bengal and their shrines can be found there.
  • A number of temples got constructed in Bengal. Now local deities began to be worshipped in temples.
  • Bengal, being in a riverine plain, produces abundant rice and fish. These two items are important foods of the Bengalis.
  • The Bengal Brahmans too eat fish.
  • Fishing has been a major occupation of the Bengalis.
  • Bengali literature contains several references to fish.

32. Write a short note on preserving wildlife.

Preserving Wildlife

  • Deforestation and large scale hunting of animals have resulted in the extinction of some species.
  • Most birds and small animals are killed for mere pleasure. Tigers are killed for their skins, elephants are killed for ivory, deer and other animals are killed for their meat and skins. Due to this situation, a large number of animals and birds are disappearing every year. Vultures are rarely seen today.
  • This may lead to a serious ecological imbalance.
  • Now, people have started paying attention towards preserving the endangered species of wildlife which are on the verge of extinction, such as tiger, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, elephants, antelope, etc. by converting larger tracts of forest into national parks and sanctuaries.
  • India today has the largest number of tigers in the world, i.e.. 3,600 to 4,000 in number. The tiger population is widely distributed over the forests of India ranging from the sub-alpine Himalayas to down south and across east-west, excluding Kashmir valley and the desert and arid portions of Rajasthan and Kutch. But the fact remains that the tiger is in danger of extinction.
  • The Project Tiger was launched in India in 1973 - 74 as a conservation programme for saving the Indian tiger population. Now there are 28 tiger reserves in India.

33, State the main teachings of Kabir.

Teachings of Kabir

  • Emphasized that there is one God, some call it Ram and some Rahim.
  • Taught that God lives in temples or mosques, but in the hear of every individual.
  • Promoted brotherhood on religion.
  • Ridiculed all evil practices such as sati, the purdah system and the superiority of the Brahmins.

34. Write a brief note on administrative system of Gond kingdom.

The Gonads

  • They were the largest tribe in Central India. They were spread over the states of Madhya Pradesh, eastern Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, northern Andhra Pradesh and western Orissa.
  • This area came to be known as Gondwana, because of the concentration of the Gonads in this area in large numbers.
  • The Gonads were traditionally agriculturists; some practiced shifting cultivation while others grew cereals or herded cattle.
  • Gondwana, the land of the Gonads, was home to several Gond kingdoms from the 15th to the mid- 18th century.
  • Taking full advantage of the decline of the Delhi Sultans, many Gond Kingdoms-both small and large came into being.
  • Among the Gond kingdoms. Garha Katanga was quite important.
  • The Akhar Nama, a history of Akhar Regin, mentions the Gond Kingdom of Garha katanga that had 70,000 villages.
  • From administrative point of view this kingdom was divided into local units called ‘Garh’ .
  • Each ‘Garh’ had about 84 villages under it and they were called ‘Chaurasi’ .
  • This Unit of chaurasi villages was further subdivided into local unit called barhots՚ which had 12 villages under it.
  • The Garha Katanga remained the most important Gond state for a long time.
  • Its ruler like Aman Das and Dalpat claimed themselves to be Rajput՚s and assumed high titles.
  • Aman Das assumed the titles of Sangram Shah and his Son Dalpat married princess Durgavati, the daughter of Chandel Rajput ruler of Mahoha.
  • Rani Durgavati played a great part in challenging the Mughal attackers in 1565.
  • She put up strong resistance to the Mughal commander Asaf Khan rather than surrendering to him.