Movement of Molecules: Hypertonic Solution, Isotonic Solution (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Hypertonic Solution

  • The solute concentration is higher than concentration inside the cell.
  • The water moves out thereby causing the cell to shrink.

Isotonic Solution

  • The extracellular solute concentration is balanced (concentration inside the cell) .
  • Water movement is balanced inside of the cell as well as outside of the cell.

Hypotonic Solution

  • The solute concentration outside the cell is lower than the concentration inside the cell.
  • Cell gets swell with the water movement into the cell down its concentration gradient (higher to lower water concentrations) .
  • Cells like that of an animal could burst in this solution as they do not have a cell wall.

Difference between Active & Passive Transport

Difference between Active & Passive Transport
Active TransportPassive Transport
It requires cellular energy (in the form of ATP)It doesn՚t require cellular energy.
Molecular movement is from high concentration to low concentration.Molecular movement is from low concentration to high concentration.
It gets affected by the temperature.Not affected by the temperature.
Gets stopped by the metabolic inhibitors.No such influence.
It is one directional.It is bidirectional.
A rapid process.A slow process comparatively.
Carrier proteins are involved.Carrier proteins are not involved.
It is a vital process.It is a physical process.
Classification: Primary active transport and Passive active transport.Classification: Osmosis, diffusion, facilitated diffusion and filtration.
Difference between Active & Passive Transport
Examples include sodium pump, glucose selection in the intestines etc.It occurs in the kidneys and the liver, and in the alveoli of the lungs.
Macromolecules like proteins, carbohydrate (sugars) , lipids, large cell are some of the materials transported.Oxygen, monosaccharides, water, carbon dioxide, lipids are some of the soluble materials which are being transported.


In What Way Active Transport is Different from That of the Passive Transport?

  • In Active transport there is a molecules and ions from lower to higher concentration involving in the form of ATP with the help of energy.
  • In passive transport the movement of molecules and ions is from a higher concentration to lower concentration without involvement of any energy.

What՚s the Importance of ATP in Active Transport?

  • ATP hydrolysis is responsible for the movement of molecules and ions across a concentration gradient.
  • When the movement of molecules occur inside the cells it is known as endocytosis.
  • When there is a movement of molecules outside the cells it is known as exocytosis.

List Examples of Active and Passive Transport

  • Sodium-potassium pump, uptake of mineral ions by the roots of the plants, etc. are the examples of active transport.
  • The examples of passive transport include the exchange of gases in the alveoli of the lungs and the exchange of nutrients in the kidneys.

List the Different Types of Passive Transport

  • Simple diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Facilitated diffusion

What is the Simple Definition of an Osmosis?

  • The movement of water through a semi-permeable membrane.
  • From a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.
  • It doesn՚t not require energy being a part of passive transport.

When Diffusion Process Occurs?

  • When substances like water, molecules and ions are required for various cellular processes, entering, and leaving the cells.
  • Cell diffusion occurs when molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

What is Facilitated Diffusion?

  • Also known as facilitated transport or passive-mediated transport.
  • Involves process of spontaneous passive transport.
  • doesn՚t directly require chemical energy from ATP hydrolysis.
  • The transportation is based on molecular binding.

Why Active and Passive Transport Are Important to a Cell?

  • What enters and exits the cell is being controlled by the active and passive transport.
  • Permeable cell membrane is responsible for controlling to and from w. r. t to the transport of materials.

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