Adrenal Gland: Adrenal Gland Hormones, Adrenal Gland Disorders (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Adrenal Gland Hormones

Adrenal Gland Hormones

Epinephrine or Adrenaline

  • This hormone raises blood glucose levels in the blood.
  • Also responds to stress by increasing pulse rate.

Norepinephrine or Noradrenaline

  • This hormone mobilizes the body and brain for action.
  • Responds to stress by working with epinephrine.

Hydrocortisone or Cortisol or a Steroid Hormone

  • Plays an important role during metabolic processes.
  • Regulates body functions like conversion of fats and carbohydrates to energy.

Corticosterone

  • This hormone is responsible for control the immune response and prevents inflammatory reactions.
  • It works with hydrocortisone.

Adrenal Gland Disorders

Disorders occur when not enough hormones or inadequate hormones are produced by the adrenal glands.

Cushing՚s Syndrome

  • The cortisol levels in the body goes high.
  • The possible causes are tumor in the adrenal gland or the pituitary gland.

Adrenocortical Carcinoma

  • It is a rare disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the outer layer of the adrenal gland.
  • Pain in the abdomen is one of the symptoms.

Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)

  • It is a genetic disorder characterized by very low levels of cortisol production.
  • A pair of walnut-sized organs above the kidneys.
  • Symptoms depend upon depending on which gene is defective and the level of enzyme deficiency.

Addison՚s Disease

  • It is an autoimmune disease.
  • Also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypercortisolism.
  • The body mistakenly attacks the adrenal glands.
  • The hormone aldosterone in not produced insufficient quantities by the adrenal gland.
  • Extreme fatigue, Weight loss and decreased appetite, Low blood pressure, even fainting, abdominal pains, Muscle, or joint pains, etc. are some of the symptoms.

Prevention

  • Consulting the doctor if somebody always feel tired, weak, or are losing weight.
  • A person should learn how to increase the dose of corticosteroids.
  • One should go to the emergency room incase he/she is vomiting, feeling sick and cannot take medication.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What are Adrenal glands and where they are located?

Answer:

  • Adrenal glands or Suprarenal glands are the endocrine glands responsible for producing a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
  • They are present above each kidney.

Q. What is the function of the adrenal glands?

Answer:

  • The adrenal glands help in regulating blood pressure and is responsible for the fight or flight response.
  • Also, they perform other metabolic processes.

Q. What are some of the symptoms of Addison՚s disease?

Answer:

  • Addison՚s disease is an autoimmune disease in which the body mistakenly attacks the adrenal glands.
  • Some of the symptoms are Extreme fatigue, Weight loss and decreased appetite, Low blood pressure, even fainting, abdominal pains, Muscle, or joint pains, etc.

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