Antibiotics: Strain Improvement in Antibiotic, Status of Antibiotic Use in India

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Strain Improvement in Antibiotics

  • To increase the yield and quality of antibiotics, the wild strain of microorganism is transformed into the mutant strain.

  • Antibiotic production can be improved the improvement of biosynthetic pathway design and recombinant DNA techniques.

  • The biological characteristics of various organisms can be modified using genetic engineering. Some of the examples are Recombinant DNA technology, Microinjection, etc.

Status of Antibiotic Use in India

  • India is as the epicenter of this catastrophe.

  • Without prescriptions people are having easy access to the strongest of antibiotics.

  • India is yet to introduce standards for antibiotics in wastewater.

  • Excessive usage in livestock and poor sanitation.

  • India’s excessive antibiotic usage was now leading to a powerful never-before-seen mutation within bacteria.

  • ICMR study on 207 individuals:

  • 139 individuals were resistant to one or more class of antibiotics.

  • Only 2% were found to be multidrug-resistant.

  • To effectively combat antimicrobial resistance, India released the AMR action plan in 2017.

  • The aim is to understand the emergence, spread and factors influencing AMR.

  • The use of antibiotics and several pharmacologically active substances in fisheries has been banned by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI).

  • India classified important antibiotics under Schedule H1 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945 to tackle the overuse of antibiotics by human beings.

WHO Guidelines on Antibiotics

  • The antibiotics classes among the list of essential medicines have been revised.

  • The WHO ensures availability of a first-line ‘access’ group of antibiotics at all times.

  • The second choice involves drugs that are placed under a ‘watch’ category.

  • Drugs being classified as ‘reserve’ should be deployed as a last resort.

  • Some medicines are reserved for the most resistant microbes.

  • If the various issues associated with use of the drugs can be monitored and regulated, the problems can be mitigated by the revised WHO classification.

Needs to be Done

  • A stricter regulations and regulated monitoring.

  • Providing sanitation.

  • Clean water and good governance.

  • Increasing public health expenditure.

  • Better regulation of the private health sector.