Antibiotics: Strain Improvement in Antibiotic, Status of Antibiotic Use in India (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Strain Improvement in Antibiotics

  • To increase the yield and quality of antibiotics, the wild strain of microorganism is transformed into the mutant strain.
  • Antibiotic production can be improved the improvement of biosynthetic pathway design and recombinant DNA techniques.
  • The biological characteristics of various organisms can be modified using genetic engineering. Some of the examples are Recombinant DNA technology, Microinjection, etc.

Status of Antibiotic Use in India

  • India is as the epicenter of this catastrophe.
  • Without prescriptions people are having easy access to the strongest of antibiotics.
  • India is yet to introduce standards for antibiotics in wastewater.
  • Excessive usage in livestock and poor sanitation.
  • India՚s excessive antibiotic usage was now leading to a powerful never-before-seen mutation within bacteria.
  • ICMR study on 207 individuals:
  • 139 individuals were resistant to one or more class of antibiotics.
  • Only 2 % were found to be multidrug-resistant.
  • To effectively combat antimicrobial resistance, India released the AMR action plan in 2017.
  • The aim is to understand the emergence, spread and factors influencing AMR.
  • The use of antibiotics and several pharmacologically active substances in fisheries has been banned by the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) .
  • India classified important antibiotics under Schedule H1 of the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules 1945 to tackle the overuse of antibiotics by human beings.

WHO Guidelines on Antibiotics

  • The antibiotics classes among the list of essential medicines have been revised.
  • The WHO ensures availability of a first-line ‘access’ group of antibiotics at all times.
  • The second choice involves drugs that are placed under a ‘watch’ category.
  • Drugs being classified as ‘reserve’ should be deployed as a last resort.
  • Some medicines are reserved for the most resistant microbes.
  • If the various issues associated with use of the drugs can be monitored and regulated, the problems can be mitigated by the revised WHO classification.

Needs to be Done

  • A stricter regulations and regulated monitoring.
  • Providing sanitation.
  • Clean water and good governance.
  • Increasing public health expenditure.
  • Better regulation of the private health sector.

Developed by: