Asexual Reproduction in Plants: Definition and Meaning, Types of Asexual Reproduction in Plants (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Definition and Meaning of Asexual Reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction can be defined as the mode of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of male and female gametes.
  • It produces individuals that are genetically identical to the parent.
  • An organism is produced from a single parent.
  • Either the parent organism splits, or a part of parent organism separates to form a new organism.
  • Certain cells of the parent undergo mitotic cell division.

Types of Asexual Reproduction

Types of Asexual Reproduction

Fission

  • Here a unicellular organism splits to form new organisms.
  • This process of reproduction occurs in protozoa and many bacteria.
Types of Fission

Binary Fission

  • After reaching a certain point (fully-grown) , the parent cell divides into two.
  • Two new organisms are formed.
  • Some of the examples of unicellular organisms undergoing binary fission are amoeba, paramecium, Leishmania etc.
Binary Fission

Multiple Fission

  • Here parent cell splits to form many new organisms.
  • Formation of a cyst around a unicellular organism.
  • The cyst breaks and the many daughter cells inside it is released.
Multiple Fission in Plasmodium

Budding

  • A small bud grows on the body of the parent organism.
  • This small bud detaches itself when the time comes forming a new organism.
  • Some of the examples are Hydra and Yeast, which undergoes the process of budding.

Spore Formation

  • This process occurs in both unicellular and multi-cellular organisms.
  • The parent plant produces hundreds of reproductive units called spores.
  • The spores germinate and produce new plants.
  • Some of the examples of spore formation are Rhizopus, Mucor, etc.

Regeneration

  • A whole new organism is formed even after the parent organism gets cut.
  • The cells of cut body part divide rapidly and form a ball of cells.
  • Regeneration process occurs in both plants and animals.
  • Hydra and planaria are some of the examples.

Fragmentation

  • It occurs in multicellular organisms in both plants and animals.
  • On maturation, the multicellular organism breaks into two or more pieces.
  • The process of fragmentation is undergone by Spirogyra which is a plant and sea anemones which is a sea animal.

Vegetative Propagation

  • This asexual reproduction occurs in plants only.
  • Used to grow a new plant.
    • Parts of old plant
    • Stems, roots, and leaves
  • Some of the plants that undergo vegetative propagation are green grass, Bryophyllum, money plant, potato plant, onion, banana, etc.

Artificial Propagation of Plants

Artificial Propagation of Plants

Cuttings

  • A new plant is grown by cutting a small part of a plant.
    • Can be a stem or a leaf.
    • Has a bud on it.
  • A new plant can be seen growing after a few days.
  • Some of the plants that can be grown by cutting are bougainvillea, chrysanthemum, grapes, etc.

Layering

  • The branches of the parent plant can go inside the soil.
  • The part of the branch, which is inside the soil, develops roots.
  • This method is used for the plants like Jasmine, Strawberry, raspberry, etc.

Grafting

  • Stems of two different plants is cut and joined.
  • One stem is with the roots and is called stock.
  • The other stem is cut without roots and is called scion.
  • Some of the examples of fruits, which are grafted, are apple, peach, apricot etc.
Two Different Colour Blossoms

Micropropagation

  • The process of producing many plants from an explant under laboratory conditions within a short time interval.
  • The growth of rare and endangered plant species gets facilitated.