Asexual Reproduction in Plants: Definition and Meaning, Types of Asexual Reproduction in Plants

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Definition and Meaning of Asexual Reproduction

  • Asexual reproduction can be defined as the mode of reproduction that does not involve the fusion of male and female gametes.

  • It produces individuals that are genetically identical to the parent.

  • An organism is produced from a single parent.

  • Either the parent organism splits, or a part of parent organism separates to form a new organism.

  • Certain cells of the parent undergo mitotic cell division.

Types of Asexual Reproduction

Types of asexual reproduction

Types of Asexual Reproduction

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Fission

  • Here a unicellular organism splits to form new organisms.

  • This process of reproduction occurs in protozoa and many bacteria.

Types of Fission

Types of Fission

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Binary Fission

  • After reaching a certain point (fully-grown), the parent cell divides into two.

  • Two new organisms are formed.

  • Some of the examples of unicellular organisms undergoing binary fission are amoeba, paramecium, Leishmania etc.

Binary fission

Binary Fission

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Multiple Fission

  • Here parent cell splits to form many new organisms.

  • Formation of a cyst around a unicellular organism.

  • The cyst breaks and the many daughter cells inside it is released.

Multiple Fission in Plasmodium

Multiple Fission in Plasmodium

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Budding

  • A small bud grows on the body of the parent organism.

  • This small bud detaches itself when the time comes forming a new organism.

  • Some of the examples are Hydra and Yeast, which undergoes the process of budding.

Spore Formation

  • This process occurs in both unicellular and multi-cellular organisms.

  • The parent plant produces hundreds of reproductive units called spores.

  • The spores germinate and produce new plants.

  • Some of the examples of spore formation are Rhizopus, Mucor, etc.

Regeneration

  • A whole new organism is formed even after the parent organism gets cut.

  • The cells of cut body part divide rapidly and form a ball of cells.

  • Regeneration process occurs in both plants and animals.

  • Hydra and planaria are some of the examples.

Fragmentation

  • It occurs in multicellular organisms in both plants and animals.

  • On maturation, the multicellular organism breaks into two or more pieces.

  • The process of fragmentation is undergone by Spirogyra which is a plant and sea anemones which is a sea animal.

Vegetative Propagation

  • This asexual reproduction occurs in plants only.

  • Used to grow a new plant.

    • Parts of old plant

    • Stems, roots, and leaves

  • Some of the plants that undergo vegetative propagation are green grass, Bryophyllum, money plant, potato plant, onion, banana, etc.

Artificial Propagation of Plants

Artificial Propagation of Plants

Artificial Propagation of Plants

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Cuttings

  • A new plant is grown by cutting a small part of a plant.

    • Can be a stem or a leaf.

    • Has a bud on it.

  • A new plant can be seen growing after a few days.

  • Some of the plants that can be grown by cutting are bougainvillea, chrysanthemum, grapes, etc.

Layering

  • The branches of the parent plant can go inside the soil.

  • The part of the branch, which is inside the soil, develops roots.

  • This method is used for the plants like Jasmine, Strawberry, raspberry, etc.

Grafting

  • Stems of two different plants is cut and joined.

  • One stem is with the roots and is called stock.

  • The other stem is cut without roots and is called scion.

  • Some of the examples of fruits, which are grafted, are apple, peach, apricot etc.

Two different colour blossoms

A Grafted Tree

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Micropropagation

  • The process of producing many plants from an explant under laboratory conditions within a short time interval.

  • The growth of rare and endangered plant species gets facilitated.