Binary Fission: Meaning and Definition, Paramecium, Binary Fission in Bacteria (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Definition and Meaning

  • Binary fission can be defined as a form of asexual reproduction in which an organism divides into two, each part carrying one copy of genetic material.
  • It is a type of asexual reproduction most observed in prokaryotes and some single-celled eukaryotes such as Amoeba and the Paramecium.
  • A parent cell gets separated into two new daughter cells.
  • The process involves the duplication and division of the parent՚s genetic material into two parts.
    • Each daughter cells receive one copy of its parent DNA.
  • During binary fission, the DNA replication and segregation occur simultaneously.
  • The cell grows creating room for each molecule to move towards the opposite side of the bacterium.
  • For binary fission to occur the environmental conditions are favorable i.e.. when there is a plenty of food & water are suitable temperature.
  • Some of the examples are Amoeba, Bacteria, Euglena, etc.
Binary Fission


Structure of Paramecium

Binary Fission in Bacteria

Steps Involved in the Binary Fission

Steps Involved in the Binary Fission

Replication of DNA

The chromosome is replicated and coiled by the bacterium thereby doubling the content.

Growth of a Cell

  • As soon as the copying of chromosomes is finished, the bacterium starts to grow larger in preparation for binary fissions.
  • There is an increase in cytoplasm volume as well as an increase in the number of organelles.
  • The two strands migrate to opposite poles of the cell.

Segregation of DNA

  • A septum is formed at the middle with cell elongation.
  • There is a separation of two chromosomes in this phase.

Splitting of Cells

  • There is a formation of a new cell wall at this phase.
  • The cell splits at the center, dividing the parent cell into two new daughter cells.

Binary Fission in Amoeba

  • Amoeba reproduces through binary fission and is a unicellular organism.
  • The cell divides into two equal-sized daughter cells after replication of the genetic material through mitotic division.
  • From a single parent cell two similar individuals are produced.
  • The division of nucleus is followed by the division of cytoplasm.
  • The parent identity is technically lost as soon as two amoebas are produced from a single parent.
Binary Fission in Amoeba