Biotic and Abiotic Factors: Meaning and Introduction, Examples of Biotic Factors (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Biotic Factors Meaning and Introduction

  • Biotic means life-like being related to all the living entities present in an ecosystem.
  • Living organisms include animals, humans, plants, fungi, and bacteria and protists i.e.. all flora and fauna.
  • Interaction between various biotic factors is essential:
    • For the reproduction of each species.
    • To fulfil essential requirements like food, etc.
  • For survival and reproduction, biotic factors depend on abiotic factors.
  • These components originate from the biosphere.
Terrestrial Food Chain

Biotic Components of an Ecosystem

Biotic Components of an Ecosystem


  • This include all the plants in the ecosystem.
  • These plants can generate energy requirement through photosynthesis.

Primary Producers or Autotrophs (Self-Nourishing)

  • This includes green plants, certain bacteria and alga that can carry out photosynthesis.
  • Microscopic algae (plankton) are the primary producers in an aquatic ecosystem.

Consumers Heterotrophs or Phagotrophs

  • This includes herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.
  • They cannot produce their own food.
  • Herbivores feed on plants, Carnivores eat other living organisms, Omnivores eat both plants and animals.

Micro Consumers or Saprotrophs

  • Bacteria and fungi obtaining energy and nutrients from dead organic substances.
  • Detrivores includes Earthworm, nematodes, and arthropods as soil organisms. These help in the decomposition of organic matter.

Macro Consumers

  • Examples herbivores which are primary consumers feeding on plants are sheep, rabbit, etc.
  • Wolves, dogs, snakes depend on primary consumers.
  • Tertiary consumers are the carnivores feeding on both primary and secondary consumers. For e. g. a lion eat snakes.
  • Man, bear, etc. are the omnivores as they consume both plants and animals.


  • This includes fungi and bacteria.
  • Fungi and bacteria also known as the saprophytes on the decaying organic matter and further convert this matter into nitrogen and carbon dioxide.


Q. What are the biotic factors?

Answer: Biotic factors are all those living components in the ecosystem. It includes all flora and fauna. These components originate from the biosphere.

Q. What are the examples of biotic resources?

Answer: Pants, Animals, Bacteria and Fungi are some of the example of biotic resources.

Q. What are the three biotic components of an ecosystem?

Answer: Three biotic components of an ecosystem are:

i) Producers

ii) Consumers

iii) Decomposers

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