Cell Division: Meaning and Definition, Types of Cell Division, Mitosis

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Meaning and Definition of Cell Division

  • Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

  • It occurs as a part of a larger cell cycle.

  • Each parental cell gives rise to the two daughter cells.

Types of Cell Division

Mitosis

  • Exact replicas are made by the process cells.

  • This is observed in all the body’s cells that includes eyes, skin, hair, and muscle cells.

Meiosis

  • Sperm or egg cells are produced instead of identical daughter cells in this type of cell division.

  • Meiosis results in four haploid daughter cells by undergoing one round of DNA replication.

  • In Meiosis-I, the homologous chromosomes are paired and then separated and distributed into daughter cells.

  • In Meiosis-II, the chromatids are separated.

  • In case of human’s meiosis gives rise to gametes and is also known as gametic meiosis.

  • In case of plants, meiosis is called sporic meiosis i.e. the meiosis gives rise to kind of spores that germinates into haploid vegetative phase (gametophyte).

Binary Fission

  • The division of a single entity into two or more parts including the regeneration of those parts to separate entities resembling the original.

  • Taking example of a single celled organisms like bacteria which replicate themselves for reproduction.

Eukaryotes

  • Eukaryotes are those organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within a nuclear envelope.

  • A vegetative division and a reproductive cell division are the two distinct types of cell division.

  • In a vegetative division each daughter cell is genetically identical to the parent cell (mitosis).

  • In a reproductive cell division, the number of chromosomes in the daughter cells is reduced by half to produce haploid gametes (meiosis).

Forms of Mitosis of Karyokinesis Step in Eukaryotes
Forms of Mitosis of Karyokinesis Step in Eukaryotes

Forms of Mitosis of Karyokinesis Step in Eukaryotes

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Prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea)

  • A prokaryote is that cellular organism which lacks an envelope-enclosed nucleus.

  • Usually undergo a vegetative cell division known as binary fission.

  • For most of the prokaryotes, binary fission is the means of division apart from alternative manners of division, such as budding.

  • Budding is defined as a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at a site.

Simple Unicellular Microorganisms
  • One cell division is equivalent to reproduction i.e. an entire new organism is created as in case of amoeba.

  • Mitotic cell division can create progeny (Collective offspring may be known as a brood or progeny) from multicellular organisms.

  • From the one-celled zygote, mitotic cell division enables sexually reproducing organisms to develop.

  • The human body experiences about 10 quadrillion cell divisions in a lifetime.

Simple Unicellular Microorganisms

Simple Unicellular Microorganisms

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Cell Division in Bacteria

  • The cell division happens through binary fission or budding.

  • The divisome is a protein complex in bacteria.

  • This is responsible for cell division, constriction of inner and outer membranes during division, and peptidoglycan (PG) synthesis at the division site.

Cell division in Bacteria

Cell Division in Bacteria

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