Endocrine Glands: Endocrine Glands and Disorders, Acromegaly (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Endocrine Glands and Disorders

  • An excess of hormone may lead to certain diseases and too little hormone may also cause diseases.
  • The study of the endocrine system and its disorders is known as endocrinology.
  • Endocrinology is a branch of internal medicine.
  • To counteract the hormone imbalance the endocrine gland itself has a feedback mechanism.


  • This is a short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition.
  • This occurs due to the growth hormone being secreted by the pituitary gland.
  • This is responsible for dwarfism or shortness.
  • The height of an individual is retarded when pituitary produces an insufficient amount of growth hormone.


  • Excess seating, weight loss, etc. when the level of thyroid hormone is too high in blood.
  • This also results in the amplification (swelling) of the thyroid gland.
  • Goiter is either due to iodine deficiency or hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism.


  • This disease is caused due to the deficiency of thyroid hormones.
  • It is a type of hypothyroidism that occurs in infants or kids.
  • It may also lead to mental and physical growth impairment.

Graves՚ Disease

  • This is also known as exophthalmic goiter and is a type of hyperthyroidism.
  • This disorder is commonly observed in kids and is an autoimmune disorder.
  • Thyroid gland becomes overactive and secretes too much thyroid hormones.

Diabetes Mellitus

  • This is commonly known as the diabetes and is a condition in which blood glucose level is high due to insufficient secretion of insulin.
  • Some of the symptoms are Excessive thirst, weight loss, frequent urination, etc.

Addison՚s Disease

  • It is a hormonal disorder wherein adrenal cortex becomes inefficient to produce its hormones like corticosteroids.
  • The body doesn՚t produce enough of certain hormones.
  • Adrenal glands produce too little cortisol and often too little aldosterone.


Q 1. What are Endocrine glands?


  • Endocrine System can be defined as a chemical messenger system comprising feedback loops of the hormones released by internal glands of an organism.
  • This includes regulating distant target organs and the circulatory system.
  • This system can be contrasted to both exocrine glands which secrete hormones to the outside of the body which further includes paracrine signaling between cells over a short distance.

Q 2. List out the names of major endocrine glands.

Answer: Major endocrine glands are namely Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Thyroid gland, Adrenal gland Pancreas, ovary (Female) and testis (male) .

Q 3. Which glands are also known as the four small glands of the endocrine system which regulate the calcium in our bodies?


  • Parathyroid glands are also known as the four small glands of the endocrine system which regulate the calcium in our bodies.
  • These glands are located inside in the neck behind the thyroid where they continuously monitor and regulate blood calcium levels.

Q 4. Which gland is a pea-shaped gland in the brain?


  • Pineal gland a small, pea-shaped gland in the brain.
  • It produces and regulates some hormones, including melatonin.
  • Melatonin plays a vital role in regulating sleep patterns.
  • Sleep patterns are also called circadian rhythms.

Q 5. Which gland is also called the Master Gland?


  • The pituitary gland is called the “master” gland of the endocrine system as it controls the functions of many of the other endocrine glands.
  • The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea and is located at the base of the brain.

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