Human Brain: Introduction to Human Brain, Functional Areas of the Brain

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Introduction to Human Brain

  • The Human Brain acts as the central organ of the human nervous system.

  • The spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

  • The skull bones are responsible for protecting the brain.

  • Physiological functions to cognitive abilities are controlled by the brain.

  • Signals are sent and received via neurons to different parts of the body.

  • An adult brain weighs between 1.0 kg – 1.5 kg on an average.

    • Composed of neurons – the fundamental unit of the brain.

    • The nervous system.

  • Brain is also responsible for thoughts, interpretation, and origin of control for body movements.

Functional Areas of the Human Brain

Functional areas of the Human Brain

Functional Areas of the Human Brain

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Different Lobes of the Human Brain

  • Parietal Lobe

  • Occipital Lobe

  • Cerebellum

  • Spinal Cord

  • Temporal Lobe

  • Frontal Lobe

Lobes of the Brain

Lobes of the Brain

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Parts of the Human Brain

Forebrain

  • It is the largest part of the brain.

  • It is also the anterior part of the brain.

  • The forebrain includes Cerebrum, Hypothalamus, Thalamus.

  • This part of the brain is responsible for controlling the reproductive functions, body temperature, emotions, hunger, and sleep.

  • Cerebrum is the largest among the forebrain parts also the largest part of all vertebrate brains.

Midbrain

  • It is the smallest and the central part of the brain.

  • It consists of Tectum, Tegmentum.

Hindbrain

  • It is the lower part of the brain.

  • It consists of Cerebellum, Medulla, Pons.

  • The hindbrain coordinates functions that are fundamental to survival, including respiratory rhythm, motor activity, sleep, etc.

Structure of the Human Brain

Cerebrum

  • It is the uppermost part of the brain.

  • It contains two hemispheres split by a central fissure.

  • It contains major lobes of the brain.

  • It is also responsible for receiving and giving meaning to information from the sense organs, as well as controlling the body.

Cerebellum

  • It is a major structure of the hindbrain.

  • It is located near the brainstem.

  • The voluntary movements are coordinated by this part of the brain only.

  • Other functions:

    • Motor skills such as balance, coordination, and posture.

  • Some of the main functions are:

    • It senses equilibrium.

    • It transfers information.

    • It coordinates eye movement.

    • It enables precision control of the voluntary body movements

Medulla Oblongata

  • It is a long stem-like structure which makes up part of the brainstem.

  • It is anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

  • It is also responsible for autonomic (involuntary) functions ranging from vomiting to sneezing.

  • The main functions are:

    • It controls sleep cycles.

    • It regulates the magnitude and frequency of the respiration.

    • It transfers information between the cerebellum and motor cortex.

Tectum

  • It is a small portion of the brain.

  • Specifically, the dorsal part of the midbrain.

  • The reflex movements of the head, eye and neck muscles are controlled.

  • A passage for the different neurons moving in and out of the cerebrum is provided.

Tegmentum

  • It is a complex structure and a region within the brainstem.

  • This complex structure is involved in body movements, sleep, arousal, attention, and different necessary reflexes.

  • A platform for the midbrain is formed connecting with the thalamus, cerebral cortex, and the spinal cord.

Thalamus

  • It is a small structure, located right above the brain stem.

  • This part is also responsible for transmitting motor information for movement and coordination.

  • It is found in the limbic system within the cerebrum.

Hypothalamus

  • It is a small and essential part of the brain.

  • It is located precisely below the thalamus.

  • It is also considered to be the primary region of the brain.

  • Some of the important functions performed are:

    • It controls the sense of taste and smell.

    • It synthesizes the body’s essential hormones.

    • It coordinates the messages from the autonomous nervous system.

    • It is also responsible for controlling moods and emotions.

FAQs

Q 1. What are the three different parts of the Brain?

Answer:

The three different parts of the brain are:

i) Forebrain

ii) Midbrain

iii) Hindbrain

Q 2. What are the different lobes of the Human Brain?

Answer:

Different lobes of the Human brain are:

i) Parietal Lobe

ii) Occipital Lobe

iii) Cerebellum

iv) Spinal Cord

v) Temporal Lobe

vi) Frontal Lobe

Q 3. Which complex structure is involved in body movements, sleep, arousal, attention, and different necessary reflexes?

Answer: Tegmentum is complex structure is involved in body movements, sleep, arousal, attention, and different necessary reflexes.

Q 4. Which part of the brain is the primary region of the brain and is located precisely below the thalamus?

Answer: Hypothalamus is the primary region of the brain that is located precisely below the thalamus.