Human Digestive System: Digestion Process, Disorders of the Human Digestive System (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Digestion Process

  • The process of digestion begins from the mouth.
  • The process ends in the small intestine.
  • The large intestine absorbs the remaining water from the undigested food.
  • The food particles while traveling through various compartments of the gastrointestinal tract get digested.

Areas of the Stomach

Areas of the Stomach

Disorders of the Human Digestive System

Disorders of the Human Digestive System

Mucous

  • It is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
  • It is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands.
  • It may also originate from mixed glands, which contain both serous and mucous cells.

Digestive Enzymes

  • These enzymes function by breaking down polymeric macromolecules like biopolymers.
  • These enzymes speed up the breakdown or hydrolysis of food molecules.
Digestive Enzymes
Digestive juices and enzymesDigested SubstanceFormed Product
Bile from the liver (Bile salts)Fats globulesFat droplets
Saliva (Amylase)StarchMaltose
Gastric JuiceProteinsPartly digested proteins

Hydrochloric Acid

  • It is the digestive fluid formed by the stomach.
  • It destroys harmful microorganisms present in the food particles.

Examples of Specific Enzymes

Lipases

A group of enzymes that help digest fats in the gut.

Amylase

It helps change starch into sugars.

Maltase

It breaks the sugar maltose into glucose.

Trypsin

  • It breaks proteins into amino acids.
  • It is found in the small intestine.

FAQs

Q 1. What are the main disorders of the Human Digestive System?

Answer:

The main disorders of the Human Digestive System are:

i) Vomiting

ii) Diarrhea

iii) Constipation

iv) Indigestion

Q 2. What are the parts of the Human Digestive System?

Answer:

Eight parts of the Human Digestive System are:

i) Mouth

ii) Pharynx

iii) Oesophagus

iv) Stomach

v) Small Intestine

vi) Large Intestine

vii) Rectum

viii) Accessory Organs

Q 3. What are the two major parts into which digestive system can be divided?

Answer:

Digestive system is divided into two major parts:

i) The digestive tract (alimentary canal) is a continuous tube with two openings.

ii) The mouth and the anus.