Human Reproductive System: Meaning of Reproduction, Types of Reproduction (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Meaning of Reproduction

  • Human reproduction can be defined as any form of asexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization.
  • It is a biological process of producing a new individual or an offspring identical to the parents.
  • It is a vital life process and one of the fundamental characteristics of living things.
Biological Life Cycle of a Human


  • A cell or organism has just a single copy of each chromosome.
  • It is also known as monoploid.


It is a cell or organism that has paired or two sets of chromosomes one for each parent.

Types of Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

  • The production of new living organisms by combining genetic information from two individuals of different types.
  • It is a complex process.
  • Process involves:
    • Formation and transfer of gametes
    • Followed by fertilization
    • Formation of the zygote
    • Embryogenesis

Asexual Reproduction

  • It is a type of reproduction, which does not involve the fusion of gametes or change in the number of chromosomes.
  • It involves only one parent.
  • The new offspring produced is like the parent.

Human Reproductive System

  • There is fusion of male and female gametes being produced in the reproductive system.
  • Both the male and the female reproductive system are different in terms of structure and function.

Male Reproductive System

  • Within the male reproductive system, the male gametes i.e.. sperms are produced.
  • Sperms have a head, middle peace, and a tail being small and unicellular.

Testicles (Testes)

  • They are responsible for the production of sperms and the male hormone testosterone.
  • These are a pair of oval-shaped organs masked in a pouch called the scrotum.


  • It performs an important function of maintaining temperature required for producing sperm and is a sac-like organ hanging below the penis.
  • It contains testes or testicles.

Vas Deferens

  • These are the muscular tubes where the sperms mature and pass to urethra.
  • Epididymis is a tube that stores the sperms produced in the testes.

Accessory Glands

  • Seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and Cowper՚s gland are the three glands included.
  • A fluid called semen is formed when the secretions from the three glands mix.
  • Function of Semen:
    • It nourishes the sperm.
    • Increases the volume.
    • Helps in lubrication.


  • It is cylindrical in shape.
  • It serves as both reproductive organ and an excretory organ.

Female Reproductive System

Ovaries or a Pair of Ovaries

  • They produce and store ovum.
  • A female hormone called estrogen is also produced.

Fallopian Tubes (Oviducts)

  • These act as the site of fertilization process.
  • They connect ovaries with the uterus.


It acts as the site of development for the embryo.


  • It connects the cervix to the external female body parts.
  • During delivery, it acts as a fetus.


Q 1. What is the simple difference between Haploid and Diploid?


  • Haploid can be defined as a cell or organism has just a single copy of each chromosome.
  • Diploid can be defined as a cell or organism that has paired or two sets of chromosomes one for each parent.

Q 2. What are the most important functions of semen?


There are three important functions of semen:

i) It nourishes the sperm.

ii) Increases the volume.

iii) Helps in lubrication.

Q 3. What are the male and female reproductive organs?


Male reproductive organ includes Testicles (testes) , Scrotum, Vas deferens, Accessory glands, and Penis.

Female reproductive organs are a pair of ovaries, Fallopian tubes (Oviducts) , Uterus and Vagina.

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