Kingdom Monera, Protista, and Fungi: Introduction of Monera

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Introduction to Monera

  • Monera is a unicellular organism.

  • They have a prokaryotic cellular organization.

  • They lack membrane-bounded organelles and nucleus.

  • One of the examples is that of bacteria.

  • They include species like the Cyanobacteria, archaebacteria, mycoplasma, etc.

  • They are single celled organisms with no true nuclear membrane.

  • They further lack well-defined cell structures including the nucleus and other cell organelles.

  • Division into two domains:

    • Archaea

    • Bacteria

  • The DNA of Monera is enclosed within the nucleus.

Introduction to Monera

Introduction to Monera

Characteristics of Monera

  • They contain cell wall, which is rigid and is made up of peptidoglycan.

  • They are environmental decomposers.

  • They are unicellular organisms.

  • Monera lacks organelles like mitochondria, lysosomes, plastids, Golgi bodies, etc.

  • Different modes of nutrition:

    • Autotrophic

    • Parasitic

    • Heterotrophic

    • Saprophytic

Introduction to Protista

  • It consists of all unicellular organisms.

  • They are simple eukaryotic organisms that are neither plants nor animals or fungi.

  • Greek word “protistos,” means “the very first.

  • The cell of these organisms contains a nucleus, which is bound to the organelles.

The origins of eukaryotes

Kingdom Protista

Characteristics of Protista

  • Most of the species in protest are unicellular organisms.

  • They may be autotrophic or heterotrophic in nature.

  • The locomotion is exhibited through cilia and flagella.

  • They are usually aquatic.

Kingdom Fungi

  • These are either unicellular or Multicellular eukaryotes.

  • They are found in acidic environment.

  • Reproduction can be sexual as well as asexual.

  • The mode of nutrition is either heterotrophic or saprophytic.

  • The cell wall is made up of chitin.

  • Flagella are present for locomotion purpose.

Kingdom Fungi

Kingdom Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi

  • The nuclei are very small.

  • They may be unicellular or filamentous.

  • Reproduction is by means of spores.

  • The mode of reproduction can be either sexual or asexual.

  • They store their food in the form of starch.

  • The fungi have no embryonic stage.