Kingdom Monera, Protista, and Fungi: Introduction of Monera (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction to Monera

  • Monera is a unicellular organism.
  • They have a prokaryotic cellular organization.
  • They lack membrane-bounded organelles and nucleus.
  • One of the examples is that of bacteria.
  • They include species like the Cyanobacteria, archaebacteria, mycoplasma, etc.
  • They are single celled organisms with no true nuclear membrane.
  • They further lack well-defined cell structures including the nucleus and other cell organelles.
  • Division into two domains:
    • Archaea
    • Bacteria
  • The DNA of Monera is enclosed within the nucleus.
Introduction to Monera

Characteristics of Monera

  • They contain cell wall, which is rigid and is made up of peptidoglycan.
  • They are environmental decomposers.
  • They are unicellular organisms.
  • Monera lacks organelles like mitochondria, lysosomes, plastids, Golgi bodies, etc.
  • Different modes of nutrition:
    • Autotrophic
    • Parasitic
    • Heterotrophic
    • Saprophytic

Introduction to Protista

  • It consists of all unicellular organisms.
  • They are simple eukaryotic organisms that are neither plants nor animals or fungi.
  • Greek word ″ protistos, ″ means ″ the very first.
  • The cell of these organisms contains a nucleus, which is bound to the organelles.
The Origins of Eukaryotes

Characteristics of Protista

  • Most of the species in protest are unicellular organisms.
  • They may be autotrophic or heterotrophic in nature.
  • The locomotion is exhibited through cilia and flagella.
  • They are usually aquatic.

Kingdom Fungi

  • These are either unicellular or Multicellular eukaryotes.
  • They are found in acidic environment.
  • Reproduction can be sexual as well as asexual.
  • The mode of nutrition is either heterotrophic or saprophytic.
  • The cell wall is made up of chitin.
  • Flagella are present for locomotion purpose.
Kingdom Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi

  • The nuclei are very small.
  • They may be unicellular or filamentous.
  • Reproduction is by means of spores.
  • The mode of reproduction can be either sexual or asexual.
  • They store their food in the form of starch.
  • The fungi have no embryonic stage.