Plant Cell and Animal Cell: Introduction to Plant Cells, Characteristics of Plant Cells (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction to Plant Cells

  • Plant cells are made up of millions of cells.
  • These are eukaryotic cells present in green plants.
  • A plant cell has a square or rectangular shape.
  • Plants have the role of producers in an ecosystem.
  • There is a large central vacuole occupying much of the volume making the cell larger.
  • The vacuole stores waste material in a plant cell.
  • Distinctive features include:
    • Primary cell walls containing cellulose
    • Hemicelluloses and pectin
    • The presence of plastids
Plant Cell

Characteristics of Plant Cells

  • These cells are constructed outside the cell membrane and composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectin.
  • They contain plastids. Chloroplasts contain the green colored pigment called the chlorophyll.
  • There is a large central vacuole present in many types of plants cells.
  • Plasmodesmata, which are a specialized cell-to-cell communication pathway, occur in the form of pores in the primary cell wall.
  • Cell division in land plants and a few groups of algae takes place by construction of a phragmoplast.

Types of Plant Cells and Tissues

  • Parenchyma
  • Collenchyma
  • Sclerenchyma
  • Xylem
  • Phloem
  • Epidermis
Types of Plant Cells and Tissues

Other Important Structures in Plant Cells

Cell Wall Chloroplasts Vacuole

Cell Wall

  • It is a hard layer present outside the cell membrane.
  • It also contains cellulose to provide strength to the plant.


  • This space inside the cell is used for storing substances.
  • The cell can keep its shape.


  • These contain green pigment called chlorophyll.
  • Chlorophyll՚s job in a plant is to absorb light usually sunlight.

Animal Cells

  • In Animal cell, the shape of the cell is irregular or round.
  • The cell wall is absent.
  • The shape is irregular or round.
  • The plasma or the Cell membrane is absent.
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum is present.
  • The nucleus lies in the center of the cell.
  • Lysosomes and Chromosomes are present.
  • Golgi apparatus and Cytoplasm are also present.
  • It involves heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
  • In most of the animal cells, cilia are present.
Typical Animal Cell

Four Key Parts of an Animal Cell


It contains genetic material (DNA) and controls the cell՚s activity.


It is a jelly like substance where the chemical reaction takes place.

Cell membrane

It is a flexible layer surrounding the cell and controls the substances that enter and exit.


Energy is released from the food molecules.


Q 1. What is the function of vacuoles in a plant cell?

Answer: The vacuole performs an important function of storing waste materials in the plant cell.

Q 2. What is the name of the cell organelle responsible for carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells?

Answer: Chloroplast carries out photosynthesis in a plant cell.

Q 3. How does plant and animal cell differ in their shape with one another?

Answer: A plant cell has a square or rectangular shape where animal cells have an irregular or round shape.

Q 4. List the names of two cell that are present in animal cells but absent in plant cells?


The two cell organelles present in animal cells but absent in plant cells are:

i) Lysosomes

ii) Chromosomes

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