Plants and Its Classification: Introduction to Plants, Classification Based on Life Cycle (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction to Plants

  • Plants are multicellular organisms.
  • They belong to photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
  • Green plants obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis.
  • The chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color.
  • There are about 320,000 species of plants, the great majority, some 260 – 290 thousand, produce seeds.
  • Plants are classified into different sub-kingdoms based on certain characteristic features.

Classification Based on Life Cycle

Annuals Perennials Biennials


  • The life cycle gets complete during a single season.
  • They are normally herbaceous (vascular plants that have no persistent woody stems above ground) .
  • Some of the examples are corn, rice, wheat, etc.


  • These plants require two years to complete their life cycle.
  • They are normally herbaceous (vascular plants that have no persistent woody stems above ground) .
  • Some of the examples are carrot, cabbage, onions, etc.


  • These plants have a long lifespan more than two years.
  • These plants are characteristically woody or herbaceous.
  • Some of the examples are lavender, dianthus, and lilies, etc.

Classification Based on Taxonomy

  • This means classification of plants based on their genetic and evolutionary relationship.
  • The classification of plants into a separate kingdom is called Kingdom Plantae.

Coniferophyta (Gymnosperms)

  • These plants are non-flowering plants and vascular which produce seeds without production of flower and fruits.
  • Some of the examples are pines, cycads, cedars, etc.

Anthophyta (Angiosperms)

  • The seeds are fully enclosed in fruits.
  • Monocotyledonous and Dicotyledonous are the subdivision.
  • Some of the examples are mango trees, roses, jasmine, etc.


  • These plants are commonly referred to as monocot plants.
  • These are flowering plants.
  • Some of the examples are rice, corn, sugarcane, etc.
  • Till date, around 50,000 species of monocotyledonous plants have been discovered.


  • These are also known as dicot plants.
  • These are flowering plants with seed containing two cotyledons.
  • Some of the examples are figs, eucalyptus, potato, tomato, etc.
  • Around 200,000 species of dicotyledonous or dicots plants are there.

Importance of Plant Classification

To ensure that the plants are correctly named, grouped, and identified.

Other Characteristics of Plants

Evergreen Plants Woody Plants Deciduous Plants

Evergreen Plants

These plants retain their leaves throughout the year.

Woody Plants

These can be deciduous or evergreen.

Deciduous Plants

  • These are the seasonal plants.
  • They shed their leaves at the end of the growing season.
    • Either during the winter season (temperate climate) .
    • Or during the dry season (tropical climate) .


Q 1. List out three examples each of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms?


  • Three examples of Angiosperms are mango trees, roses, jasmine.
  • Three examples of Gymnosperms are pines, cycads, cedars.

Q 2. What is the classification of plants based on their life Cycle?


Based on the life cycle, plants can be classified into three groups:

i) Annuals

ii) Biennials

iii) Perennials

Q 3. What are the examples of Annuals and Biennials Plants?


i) Annuals- corn, rice, wheat, etc.

ii) Biennials- carrot, cabbage, onions, etc.

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