Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae: Introduction and Characteristics

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Solanaceae

  • The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are a family of flowering plants.

  • The name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, “the nightshade plant.”

  • It ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, lianas, epiphytes, shrubs, and trees.

  • It includes a few agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals.

  • This family is also known as the potato family.

  • As many as 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family.

  • Fruits related to the Solanaceae:

    • Tomatoes

    • Tomatillos

    • Eggplant Bell peppers

    • Chili peppers

Solanum dulcamara

Solanum Dulcamara

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Characteristics of Solanaceae Family

  • Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.

  • It has Taproot system.

  • The leaves are simple or pinnately compound (rarely).

Importance of Solanaceae Family

  • They are used as ornamental plants for e.g. petunia.

  • They are an important source of spices for e.g. chilly.

  • They are also an important source of food for e.g. brinjal and potato, etc.

  • They can also be used as medicinal plants for e.g. belladonna and ashwagandha.

Fabaceae Family

  • It is a large and economically important family of flowering plants.

  • Fabaceae is commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family.

  • It includes trees, shrubs, and perennial or annual herbaceous plants.

  • This family is widely distributed and is the third-largest land plant family in number of species.

  • This family is also known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae.

  • 2000 species of dicotyledonous Fabaceae plants are widely distributed all over the world.

A flower of Wisteria sinensis, Faboideae

Fabaceae Family

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Characteristics of Fabaceae Family

  • The leaves consist of Petiolate, pinnately compound, or simple.

  • Root consists of Dicotyledons, taproot with root nodules.

  • Stem consists of Erect or climber; Fabaceae includes shrubs, herbs, trees, etc.

Importance of Fabaceae Family

  • Plants belonging to this family are unique with root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria.

  • The main source of food is pulses like gram, moong, soya bean.

  • Some plants for e.g. Mulethi is known for its medicinal value.

  • Soyabean and groundnuts are used extracting oil for cooking purpose.

Liliaceae Family

  • It is also known as the ‘lily family.’

  • It is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots.

  • The leaves are linear in shape, with their veins usually arranged parallel to the edges.

  • A few Liliaceae genera are popular cultivated plants in private and public spaces.

Flower of Nomocharis aperta, Yunnan, China

Liliaceae Family

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Importance of Liliaceae Family

  • Aloe Vera, Smilax, etc. are the source of medicine.

  • Lilium, tulips, etc. are the ornamental plants.

  • The roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavoring agents.

Floral Characters of Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae

Floral characters of Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae

Family

Seeds

Fruit

Inflorescence

Solanaceae family

Numerous, Endospermous

Berry/ capsule

Cymose- solitary in Solanum

Fabaceae family

One or more, non-endospermic

Legume

Racemose

Liliaceae family

Endospermic seeds

Mostly Capsule

Cymose- solitary, umbellate clusters

FAQs

Q 1. Which vegetables are included under the Solanaceae family?

Answer: Potatoes, eggplant, tomato, capsicum and chilly are the vegetables included under the Solanaceae family.

Q 2. What fruit is included in the Fabaceae family?

Answer: Legume is included in the Fabaceae family along with leguminous plants.

Q 3. What are the characteristics of Fabaceae Family?

Answer:

Some of the important characteristics of Fabaceae Family are:

i) The leaves consist of Petiolate, pinnately compound, or simple.

ii) Root consists of Dicotyledons, taproot with root nodules.

iii) Stem consists of Erect or climber; Fabaceae includes shrubs, herbs, trees, etc.

Q 4. What are the characteristics of Solanaceae Family?

Answer:

Some of the important characteristics of Solanaceae Family are:

i) Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.

ii) It has Taproot system.

iii) The leaves are simple or pinnately compound (rarely).