Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae: Introduction and Characteristics (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Solanaceae

  • The Solanaceae, or nightshades, are a family of flowering plants.
  • The name Solanaceae derives from the genus Solanum, β€œthe nightshade plant.”
  • It ranges from annual and perennial herbs to vines, lianas, epiphytes, shrubs, and trees.
  • It includes a few agricultural crops, medicinal plants, spices, weeds, and ornamentals.
  • This family is also known as the potato family.
  • As many as 2000 species of dicotyledonous plants belong to this family.
  • Fruits related to the Solanaceae:
    • Tomatoes
    • Tomatillos
    • Eggplant Bell peppers
    • Chili peppers
Solanum Dulcamara

Characteristics of Solanaceae Family

  • Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.
  • It has Taproot system.
  • The leaves are simple or pinnately compound (rarely) .

Importance of Solanaceae Family

  • They are used as ornamental plants for e. g. petunia.
  • They are an important source of spices for e. g. chilly.
  • They are also an important source of food for e. g. brinjal and potato, etc.
  • They can also be used as medicinal plants for e. g. belladonna and ashwagandha.

Fabaceae Family

  • It is a large and economically important family of flowering plants.
  • Fabaceae is commonly known as the legume, pea, or bean family.
  • It includes trees, shrubs, and perennial or annual herbaceous plants.
  • This family is widely distributed and is the third-largest land plant family in number of species.
  • This family is also known as Leguminosae or Papilionaceae.
  • 2000 species of dicotyledonous Fabaceae plants are widely distributed all over the world.
A Flower of Wisteria Sinensis, Faboideae

Characteristics of Fabaceae Family

  • The leaves consist of Petiolate, pinnately compound, or simple.
  • Root consists of Dicotyledons, taproot with root nodules.
  • Stem consists of Erect or climber; Fabaceae includes shrubs, herbs, trees, etc.

Importance of Fabaceae Family

  • Plants belonging to this family are unique with root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing symbiotic bacteria.
  • The main source of food is pulses like gram, moong, soya bean.
  • Some plants for e. g. Mulethi is known for its medicinal value.
  • Soyabean and groundnuts are used extracting oil for cooking purpose.

Liliaceae Family

  • It is also known as the β€˜lily family.’
  • It is the family of around 2500 species of perennial, herbaceous monocots.
  • The leaves are linear in shape, with their veins usually arranged parallel to the edges.
  • A few Liliaceae genera are popular cultivated plants in private and public spaces.
Flower of Nomocharis Aperta, Yunnan, China

Importance of Liliaceae Family

  • Aloe Vera, Smilax, etc. are the source of medicine.
  • Lilium, tulips, etc. are the ornamental plants.
  • The roots of various species of Smilax are used as flavoring agents.

Floral Characters of Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae

Floral Characters of Solanaceae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae
FamilySeedsFruitInflorescence
Solanaceae familyNumerous, EndospermousBerry/capsuleCymose- solitary in Solanum
Fabaceae familyOne or more, non-endospermicLegumeRacemose
Liliaceae familyEndospermic seedsMostly CapsuleCymose- solitary, umbellate clusters

FAQs

Q 1. Which vegetables are included under the Solanaceae family?

Answer: Potatoes, eggplant, tomato, capsicum and chilly are the vegetables included under the Solanaceae family.

Q 2. What fruit is included in the Fabaceae family?

Answer: Legume is included in the Fabaceae family along with leguminous plants.

Q 3. What are the characteristics of Fabaceae Family?

Answer:

Some of the important characteristics of Fabaceae Family are:

i) The leaves consist of Petiolate, pinnately compound, or simple.

ii) Root consists of Dicotyledons, taproot with root nodules.

iii) Stem consists of Erect or climber; Fabaceae includes shrubs, herbs, trees, etc.

Q 4. What are the characteristics of Solanaceae Family?

Answer:

Some of the important characteristics of Solanaceae Family are:

i) Solanaceae includes herbs, shrubs, small trees, and climbers.

ii) It has Taproot system.

iii) The leaves are simple or pinnately compound (rarely) .

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