Sporulation: Definition and Meaning, Sporulation in Bacteria, Sporulation in Amoeba

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Definition and Meaning of Sporulation

  • The formation of spores from vegetative cells during unfavorable environmental conditions.

  • It can also be described as an adaptive response that allows the organism to survive given adverse conditions (radiation, extreme heat or cold, lack of nutrition etc.).

  • In simple terms we can define sporulation as the formation of asleep and inactive forms of bacteria.

  • Bacteria’s genetic material can be preserved provided the conditions are harsh and difficult for the normal form of bacteria.

  • A multi-layered structure provided by sporulation can be maintained for a long time.

  • Some of the organisms that produce spores include Plants, Algae, Protozoa, Bacteria and Fungi.

Different Types of Spores

Different types of Spores

Different Types of Spores

Asexual Spores

For e.g. exogenous spores produced by Conidia oidia.

Sexual Spores

For e.g. Oospores and Zygote.

Vegetative Spores

For e.g. Oospores and Zygote.

Megaspores of Plants

For e.g. female gametophyte.

Microspores of Plants

Develop to formmale gametophyte.

Endospores

For e.g. in case of bacteria.

Exospores

The spores that are produced outside the cell. For e.g. in the genus Methylosinus.

Sporulation in Bacteria

  • Spore forming bacteria are Gram-negative bacilli (rod-shaped).

  • This includes aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium species.

  • Spores protect a bacterium from dryness, heat, and intense radiation for a long time.

  • Tumbleweeds, mosses, and ferns are some of the well-known plants that reproduce through spores.

  • Plants and fungi use spores for reproduction and dispersal.

  • Useful fungi such as edible mushrooms and mold that is processed in penicillin reproduce through spores.

  • Due to their hardness spores hold an advantage over seeds and other types of reproduction.

  • They can survive at an extreme temperature and pressure and without water

Sporulation in Bacillus Subtilis

Sporulation in Bacillus Subtilis

Sporulation in Amoeba

  • Under favorable conditions amoeba reproduces by the formation of spores internally.

  • There is a breakdown of the nuclear membrane along with the release of chromatin that blocks into the cytoplasm.

  • A nuclear membrane is obtained by every chromatin block which becomes a small daughter nucleus.

  • The newly produced nuclei are surrounded by cytoplasm to form amoebulae.

Sporulation in Amoeba

Sporulation in Amoeba