Taxonomy: Meaning of Taxonomy, Classification of Organisms, Alpha and Beta Taxonomy

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Meaning of Taxonomy

  • It can be defined as the practice and science of classification of things or concepts.

  • It further includes the principles that underlie such classification.

  • The classification involves behavioral, genetic, and biochemical variations.

  • Process of taxonomy are:

    • Characterization

    • Identification

    • Classification

Classification of Organisms

Classification of Organisms

Classification of Organisms

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Carolus Linnaeus and Linnaeus Classification System

  • Carolus Linnaeus is the father of Taxonomy.

  • Hierarchical classification system and Binomial nomenclature system are the two important contributions of Carolus Linnaeus.

  • Based on the morphological characters, the species are distinguished.

  • For example, different types of apples can belong one species.

  • Linnaeus Classification System is used all over the world to classify living beings.

  • Classification of universe is classified into three broad kingdoms namely animals, plants, and minerals.

Alpha Taxonomy & Beta Taxonomy

  • The system of finding, identifying, characterizing, and naming the Taxon’s is known as Alpha Taxonomy.

  • A group of organisms which can be clubbed to form a single unit is known as a Taxon.

  • William Bertram introduced the term Alpha taxonomy in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937.

  • Beta Taxonomy refers to the arrangement of the species into a natural system of hierarchical categories. Β-taxonomy relates to the search of a natural system of classification.

Plant Taxonomy

  • It deals with the identification, classification, and naming of plants.

  • It is closely allied to plant systematics with no sharp boundary between the two.

The plant kingdom is divided into two main categories:

  • Plants which can produce seed.

    • Flowering plants, conifers, ginkgos, etc.

  • Plants which cannot produce seeds.

    • Plants include horsetails, ferns, and mosses etc.

Plant Taxonomy

Plant Taxonomy

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Animal Taxonomy

  • It deals with identifying, classifying, and naming of animals.

  • The classification of animals is based upon the Linnaeus classification system.

  • Vertebrates and invertebrates are the two main categories into which the animal kingdom can be classified.

  • Vertebrates include:

    • Mammals

    • Birds

    • Reptiles

    • Fish

    • Amphibians

  • Invertebrates include:

    • Arthropods

    • Molluscs

    • Annelids

Animal Taxonomy

Animal Taxonomy

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FAQs

Q 1. What are three main classifications of process of taxonomy?

Answer:

Three main classifications involved in the process of taxonomy are:

i) Characterization

ii) Identification

iii) Classification

Q 2. What are the seven categories of organisms based in Taxonomy?

Answer:

The seven categories of organisms based in Taxonomy are:

i) Kingdom

ii) Phylum

iii) Class

iv) Order

v) Family

vi) Genus

vii) Species

Q 3. What is alpha and beta taxonomy?

Answer:

  • The system of finding, identifying, characterizing, and naming the Taxon’s is known as Alpha Taxonomy.

  • A group of organisms which can be clubbed to form a single unit is known as a Taxon.

  • William Bertram introduced the term Alpha taxonomy in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937.

  • Beta Taxonomy refers to the arrangement of the species into a natural system of hierarchical categories. Β-taxonomy relates to the search of a natural system of classification.

Q 4. Who is believed to be the Father of Taxonomy?

Answer:

  • Carolus Linnaeus is believed to be the father of Taxonomy.

  • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and physician who formalized binomial nomenclature.