Taxonomy: Meaning of Taxonomy, Classification of Organisms, Alpha and Beta Taxonomy (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Meaning of Taxonomy

  • It can be defined as the practice and science of classification of things or concepts.
  • It further includes the principles that underlie such classification.
  • The classification involves behavioral, genetic, and biochemical variations.
  • Process of taxonomy are:
    • Characterization
    • Identification
    • Classification

Classification of Organisms

Classification of Organisms

Carolus Linnaeus and Linnaeus Classification System

  • Carolus Linnaeus is the father of Taxonomy.
  • Hierarchical classification system and Binomial nomenclature system are the two important contributions of Carolus Linnaeus.
  • Based on the morphological characters, the species are distinguished.
  • For example, different types of apples can belong one species.
  • Linnaeus Classification System is used all over the world to classify living beings.
  • Classification of universe is classified into three broad kingdoms namely animals, plants, and minerals.

Alpha Taxonomy & Beta Taxonomy

  • The system of finding, identifying, characterizing, and naming the Taxon՚s is known as Alpha Taxonomy.
  • A group of organisms which can be clubbed to form a single unit is known as a Taxon.
  • William Bertram introduced the term Alpha taxonomy in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937.
  • Beta Taxonomy refers to the arrangement of the species into a natural system of hierarchical categories. Β-taxonomy relates to the search of a natural system of classification.

Plant Taxonomy

  • It deals with the identification, classification, and naming of plants.
  • It is closely allied to plant systematics with no sharp boundary between the two.

The plant kingdom is divided into two main categories:

  • Plants which can produce seed.
    • Flowering plants, conifers, ginkgos, etc.
  • Plants which cannot produce seeds.
    • Plants include horsetails, ferns, and mosses etc.
Plant Taxonomy

Animal Taxonomy

  • It deals with identifying, classifying, and naming of animals.
  • The classification of animals is based upon the Linnaeus classification system.
  • Vertebrates and invertebrates are the two main categories into which the animal kingdom can be classified.
  • Vertebrates include:
    • Mammals
    • Birds
    • Reptiles
    • Fish
    • Amphibians
  • Invertebrates include:
    • Arthropods
    • Molluscs
    • Annelids
Animal Taxonomy

FAQs

Q 1. What are three main classifications of process of taxonomy?

Answer:

Three main classifications involved in the process of taxonomy are:

i) Characterization

ii) Identification

iii) Classification

Q 2. What are the seven categories of organisms based in Taxonomy?

Answer:

The seven categories of organisms based in Taxonomy are:

i) Kingdom

ii) Phylum

iii) Class

iv) Order

v) Family

vi) Genus

vii) Species

Q 3. What is alpha and beta taxonomy?

Answer:

  • The system of finding, identifying, characterizing, and naming the Taxon՚s is known as Alpha Taxonomy.
  • A group of organisms which can be clubbed to form a single unit is known as a Taxon.
  • William Bertram introduced the term Alpha taxonomy in a series of papers published in 1935 and 1937.
  • Beta Taxonomy refers to the arrangement of the species into a natural system of hierarchical categories. Β-taxonomy relates to the search of a natural system of classification.

Q 4. Who is believed to be the Father of Taxonomy?

Answer:

  • Carolus Linnaeus is believed to be the father of Taxonomy.
  • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish botanist, zoologist, and physician who formalized binomial nomenclature.