Thallophyta: Meaning of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Tracheophyte

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  • These are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom.

  • They can live in soil and are dependent on water for sexual reproduction.

  • These include the various mosses (Funaria), Marchantia and liverworts.

  • The plant body is thallus-like and erect.

  • There is a lack of true roots, stem, or leaves.

  • Haploid is main plant body of the bryophyte as it produces gamete so is called a gametophyte.

  • Mosses along with lichens decompose rocks making the substrate suitable for the growth of higher plants.

Marchantia, an example of a liverwort.

Marchantia, an Example of a Liverwort

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These plants contain well developed vascular tissues and are divided into xylem and phloem.

Divided in to three subgroups:

  • Pteridophyta

  • Gymnosperms

  • Angiosperm


  • Here the plant body is the plant body is differentiated into roots, stem, and leaves.

  • Examples are Club Mosses, horsetails, ferns etc.

  • These are used for medicinal purposes and as soil-binders.

These are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes):

  • Liverworts

  • Hornworts

  • Mosses




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  • Spores are the naked embryos present in thallophytes, the bryophytes and the pteridophytes.

  • As the reproductive organs of plants in all these three groups are very inconspicuous hence, they are called Cryptogamae,’ or ‘those with hidden reproductive organs.’


Q. What is the meaning of Thallophyta?


  • Thallophyta is the division of the plant kingdom including primitive forms of plant life showing a simple plant body.

  • This includes unicellular to large algae, fungi, lichens.

Q. What are some of the examples of Thallophyta?


Some of the examples of Thallophyta are:

i) Green algae – Ulothryx, Cladophora, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chara

ii) Red algae – Batra, Polysiphonia

iii) Brown algae – Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum.

Q. List out some of the important characteristics of Thallophyta.


  • These are found in moist or wet places due to the absence of “true roots” and vascular tissue.

  • They are autotrophic in nature.

  • Though most of the members belonging to the group can manufacture their own food still a few like fungi depends on other sources of food.

  • Xylem and phloem are absent.

Q. What are the two subdivision of Thallophytes?


Thallophytes can be subdivided into:

i) Metallophyte (myxomycetes)

ii) Euthallophyta (bacteria, fungi, lichens, algae)