Thallophyta: Meaning of Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Tracheophyte (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • These are called the amphibians of the plant kingdom.
  • They can live in soil and are dependent on water for sexual reproduction.
  • These include the various mosses (Funaria) , Marchantia and liverworts.
  • The plant body is thallus-like and erect.
  • There is a lack of true roots, stem, or leaves.
  • Haploid is main plant body of the bryophyte as it produces gamete so is called a gametophyte.
  • Mosses along with lichens decompose rocks making the substrate suitable for the growth of higher plants.
Marchantia, an Example of a Liverwort


These plants contain well developed vascular tissues and are divided into xylem and phloem.

Divided in to three subgroups:

  • Pteridophyta
  • Gymnosperms
  • Angiosperm


  • Here the plant body is the plant body is differentiated into roots, stem, and leaves.
  • Examples are Club Mosses, horsetails, ferns etc.
  • These are used for medicinal purposes and as soil-binders.

These are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes) :

  • Liverworts
  • Hornworts
  • Mosses




  • Spores are the naked embryos present in thallophytes, the bryophytes and the pteridophytes.
  • As the reproductive organs of plants in all these three groups are very inconspicuous hence, they are called Cryptogamae, ′ or ′ those with hidden reproductive organs. ′


Q. What is the meaning of Thallophyta?


  • Thallophyta is the division of the plant kingdom including primitive forms of plant life showing a simple plant body.
  • This includes unicellular to large algae, fungi, lichens.

Q. What are some of the examples of Thallophyta?


Some of the examples of Thallophyta are:

i) Green algae – Ulothryx, Cladophora, Spirogyra, Ulva, and Chara

ii) Red algae – Batra, Polysiphonia

iii) Brown algae – Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum.

Q. List out some of the important characteristics of Thallophyta.


  • These are found in moist or wet places due to the absence of “true roots” and vascular tissue.
  • They are autotrophic in nature.
  • Though most of the members belonging to the group can manufacture their own food still a few like fungi depends on other sources of food.
  • Xylem and phloem are absent.

Q. What are the two subdivision of Thallophytes?


Thallophytes can be subdivided into:

i) Metallophyte (myxomycetes)

ii) Euthallophyta (bacteria, fungi, lichens, algae)

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