Vertebrates and Invertebrates: Introduction to Vertebrates and Invertebrates

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Introduction to Vertebrates

  • Vertebrates are those animals, which comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata.

  • They represent much of the phylum chordata.

  • They include groups such as:

    • Jawless fishes

    • Bony fishes

    • Tetrapod’s, which include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

    • Jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, and ratfish)

Introduction of Vertebrates

Introduction of Vertebrates

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Characteristics of Vertebrates

  • All basal vertebrates breathe with gills.

  • The central nervous system of vertebrates is based on a hollow nerve cord running along the length of the animal.

  • The defining characteristic of a vertebrate is the vertebral column.

  • There is a notochord, which is present as an embryo in all humans and all other vertebrates.

  • The mouth is present at the anterior portion.

  • The alimentary canal ends in the anus.

Classification of Vertebrates

Classification of Vertebrates

Classification of Vertebrates

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Invertebrates

  • These animals neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine).

  • Apart from subphylum Vertebrate, it includes all animals.

  • Invertebrates are so many with different sizes and shapes.

  • These animals do not have a backbone.

  • Some of the examples of invertebrates include:

    • Arthropods (insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and myriapods)

    • Mollusks (chitons, snail, bivalves, squids, and octopuses)

    • Annelid (earthworms and leeches)

Animal: Invertebrates

Animal: Invertebrates

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Characteristics of Invertebrates

  • Invertebrate’s do not possess lungs and they respire through their skin.

  • They are heterotrophic since they cannot produce their own food.

  • In all the invertebrates, there may not be a spinal cord or vertebral column.

Kinds of Invertebrates

Ancestral Mollusc

Ancestral Mollusc

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Ancestral Mollusc

Anatomical diagram

Ancestral Mollusc

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Phylum Annelida

Phylum Annelida

Phylum Annelida

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FAQs

Q 1. What are the groups included in Vertebrates?

Answer:

Some of the groups included in vertebrates are:

i) Jawless fishes

ii) Bony fishes

iii) Tetrapod’s, which include amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

iv) Jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, and ratfish)

Q 2. What is the classification of Vertebrates?

Answer:

There are seven classifications of Vertebrates:

i) Birds

ii) Mammals

iii) Reptiles

iv) Amphibians

v) Cartilaginous fishes