Water Pollution and Its Control: Introduction, Causes of Water Pollution

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Introduction to Water Pollution

  • To addition of undesirable substances to/in water such as organic inorganic, biological, radiological, heat that makes water unfit for use is called water pollution.

  • The natural phenomena such as volcanoes, algae blooms, storms, and earthquakes also lead to changes in water quality.

  • Two countries with the highest level of water pollution are India and China.

  • As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.

Causes of Water Pollution

Causes of Water Pollution

Causes of Water Pollution

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Categories of Water Pollution

Categories of Water Pollution

Categories of Water Pollution

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Effects of Water Pollution

  • The ecosystem can be affected very badly.

  • Faecal matters present in water sources may cause hepatitis and other infectious diseases.

  • Water pollution drastically affects aquatic life.

  • Water pollution can also disrupt the food chain. For e.g. cadmium and lead are the toxic substances enter food chain through animals (fish when consumed by animals and humans).

  • In humans, it may also cause causes typhoid, cholera, etc.

  • This dearth of oxygen, known as eutrophication, suffocates plants and animals and can create dead zones.

  • Mercury compounds in wastewater are converted by bacterial action into extremely toxic methyl mercury.

Control Measures for Water Pollution

  • Treating sewage wastes before discharging.

  • Special plants like Water Hyacinth can absorb dissolved toxic chemicals such as cadmium.

  • Methods such as precipitation, the ion exchange process, reverse osmosis, and coagulation can also help in controlling water pollution.

  • While washing clothes or dishes minimum amount of detergent and/or bleach should be used.

  • One should avoid using a garbage disposal; make a compost pile from vegetable scraps.

  • The use of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers should be minimized.

Sewage Treatment

  • It is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater, containing household sewage plus some industrial wastewater.

  • Steps in sewage treatment:

    • Screening

    • Primary treatment

    • Secondary treatment

    • Final treatment

Sewage Treatment

Sewage Treatment

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FAQs

Q 1. What are the important causes of water pollution?

Answer:

Following are the important causes of water pollution:

i) Sewage water

ii) Industrial wastes

iii) Agricultural sources

iv) Marine pollution

v) Thermal and Radiation pollution

vi) Invasive species

vii) Underground water pollution

Q 2. What are the categories of water pollution?

Answer:

i) Surface water

ii) Groundwater

iii) Ocean water

Q 3. List some of the control measures to prevent water pollution.

Answer:

Some of the control measures to prevent water pollution are:

i) Treating sewage wastes before discharging.

ii) Special plants like Water Hyacinth can absorb dissolved toxic chemicals such as cadmium.

iii) Methods such as precipitation, the ion exchange process, reverse osmosis, and coagulation can also help in controlling water pollution.

iv) While washing clothes or dishes minimum amount of detergent and/or bleach should be used.

Q 4. What are the important steps in sewage treatment?

Answer:

Following are the steps in sewage treatment:

i) Screening

ii) Primary treatment

iii) Secondary treatment

iv) Final treatment