Yogurt: Introduction, Preparation of Yogurt, History of Yogurt, Nutrition and Health (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Introduction

  • Yogurt is a fermented slightly acid often flavored semisolid food.
  • It is made of milk and milk solids using cultures of two bacteria:
    • Lactobacillus bulgaricus
    • Streptococcus thermophilus
  • In simple words one can say that it is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
  • The bacteria used to make yogurt are known as yogurt cultures.
  • It is frequently used as a part of:
    • A meal or snack.
    • Component of sauces and desserts.
  • There is less milk sugar (lactose) in yogurt than milk.

Ingredients

Ingredients for Making Yogurt

Preparation

  • Lactic acid is produced by the fermentation of sugars in the milk.
  • This in turn acts on milk protein to give yogurt its texture and characteristic tart flavor.
  • The milk most commonly used to make yogurt is cow milk.
  • Other animals՚ milk used for producing Yogurt:
    • Water buffalo
    • Goats
    • Ewes
    • Mares
    • Camels
    • Yaks
    • Plant milks
  • The milk used may be pasteurized, homogenized or raw.
  • Milk is first heated, usually to about 85 °C (185 °F) , which is done to denature the mil proteins so that they don՚t form curds.
  • The milk is allowed to cool to about 45 °C (113 °F) once it is heated.
  • To allow fermentation to occur, the bacterial culture is mixed in, and that temperature of 45 °C is maintained for 4 to 12 hours.

History of Yogurt

  • It has been eaten for thousands of years.
  • Similar to yogurt, the cuisine of ancient Greece included a dairy product known as oxygala.
  • Oxygala was mentioned to be consumed with honey during (AD 129 – c. 200/c. 216) .
  • Colombo Yogurt was originally delivered around New England in a horse-drawn wagon.
  • Yogurt՚s popularity in the United States was enhanced in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Colombo Yogurt sweetened the yogurt and added fruit preserves due to the fact the plain yogurt still proved too sour for the American palate.
  • Yogurt had become a common American food item by the late 20th century.

Nutrition and Health

  • Yogurt (plain yogurt from whole milk) is:
    • 81 % water
    • 9 % protein
    • 5 % fat
    • 4 % carbohydrates
    • Including 4 % sugars (table)
  • A serving of yogurt is a rich source of vitamin B12 (31 % DV) and riboflavin (23 % DV) :
    • Moderate content of protein,
    • phosphorus,
    • Selenium (14 to 19 % DV; table)

Vitamins and Minerals Found in Conventional Yogurt

Vitamin B12

Found almost exclusively in animal foods.

Calcium

Products obtained from milk are excellent sources of easily absorbable calcium.

Phosphorus

  • Yogurt is a good source of phosphorus.
  • Phosphorous plays a vital role in biological processes.

Riboflavin

Products obtained from milk are the main source of riboflavin (vitamin B2) as far the modern diets are concerned.

Health Benefits of Yogurt

Digestive Health

  • Probiotics may help in alleviating the symptoms of lactose intolerance with improvement in digestion of lactose.
  • Probiotic yogurt with bifidobacteria is also useful in reducing the symptoms of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) .
  • Probiotic yogurt with bifidobacteria also helps in reducing constipation.

Osteoporosis and Bone Health

  • A condition characterized by weak and brittle bones is known as Osteoporosis.
  • Osteoporosis is common among older adults and is the main risk factor for bone fractures.
  • Dairy is associated with higher bone density and hence considered protective against osteoporosis.

Blood Pressure

Consumption of yogurt in a regular manner may lower blood pressure.

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