Acetylene-, Properties of Acetylene, Acetylene Structure, Health Hazards (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Acetylene -

What is Acetylene?

  • is simplest alkyne chemical compound with chemical name Acetylene.
  • Acetylene is also called Ethyne or Narcylen or Vinylene. It is widely used as a chemical building block and a fuel. In its pure form it is unstable is handled as a solution. It is an unsaturated compound the two carbon atoms in it are linked together with double bond.
  • Vinylene is a colorless gas which has a mild ether like odor. It is easily soluble in water, chloroform, acetone, and benzene. It is slightly soluble in carbon disulfide and ethanol. It is lighter when compared to air and easily ignites. Prolonged exposure to heat or fire can rupture containers violently.
  • Acetylene, the simplest and best – known member of the hydrocarbon series containing one or more pairs of carbon atoms linked by triple bonds called acetylenic series, or alkynes. It is a colorless inflammable gas widely used as a fuel in oxyacetylene welding and cutting of metals and as raw material in the synthesis of many organic chemicals and plastics; its chemical formula is .
  • Pure acetylene is a colorless gas with a pleasant odour, as prepared from calcium carbide it usually contains traces of phosphine.
  • Pure acetylene under pressure in excess of about 15 pounds per square inch or in liquid or solid form explodes with extreme violence.
  • Mixture of air and acetylene are explosive over a wide range, from about 2.5 % air in acetylene to about 12.5 % acetylene in air.

Properties of Acetylene –

Properties of Acetylene
Molecular weight of g/mol
Density of Acetylene1.097 kg/
Boiling point of Acetylene
Melting Point of Acetylene

Acetylene Structure –

Acetylene Structure

Uses (Acetylene)

  • Acetylene is used brazing.
  • Used in glass industry.
  • Used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber.
  • Used in soldering metals.
  • Used as an additive to preserve food.
  • Used to precipitate metals.
  • Used to manufacture acetic acid.
  • Used as a feedstock in the manufacturing of acrylonitrile.
  • Used in carburization of steel.
  • Used as a fuel additive.



Approximately 20 % of acetylene is supplied by the industrial gases industry for oxyacetylene gas welding and cutting due to the high temperature of the flame.

Portable Lighting

Calcium carbide was used to generate acetylene used in the lamps for portable or remote application.

Production of Acetylene

  • Since the year 1950, this compound has been synthesized by the partial combustion of (methane) . Around tonnes were produced until 1983.
  • In the year 1862 it was prepared by a reaction which was discovered by Friedrich Wohler the. Hydrolysis of calcium carbide reaction is as follows:

The above reaction takes place in an extremely high temperature approximately , with the use of an electric arc furnace.

Health Hazards

Person who comes in contact with this compound will suffer from headache, loss of consciousness, and dizziness. Death due to choking can occur if a higher percentage of Ethyne is present in the air.


What Are the Properties of Acetylene?


Physical properties: Acetylene is a colorless gas with garlic – like odor, it is dissolved in acetone to ship. These melting more correctly triple point because the equilibrium between the three phases and sublimation points are and , respectively. Its density is .

What Are Four Characteristics of Acetylene?


Acetylene is a non-toxic, colorless, and odorless gas. However, commercial grades contain impurities that lend a garlic-like odor to the gas. Commercially manufactured through a reaction of water and calcium carbide, the moisture content of this industrial gas is less. It is also a by-product of ethylene production.

What Are Three Advantages of Acetylene?


  • The equipment is cheaper than most other types of welding rigs.
  • The equipment is more portable than most other types of welding rigs.
  • Oxy/Acetylene equipment can also be used to “flame-cut” large pieces of material.

Is Oxy Acetylene Dangerous?


Oxyacetylene cutting, when used properly, is no more dangerous than driving a car with 30 gallons of gas in the tank. But when used recklessly, it՚s basically a flamethrower.


What is Acetylene Used For?


Acetylene is used in welding and cutting processes. The welding process using acetylene is known as cutting oxy-fuel or cutting coal. This method is used for cutting or welding materials which require temperatures of up to () . Acetylene is capable of producing the hottest flame of all other gases.

How Acetylene is Produced?


Acetylene is formed by any of three methods: by water reaction with calcium carbide, by passing through an electric arc of a hydrocarbon, or by partial combustion of methane with air or oxygen;

Why is Ethyne Called Acetylene?


The name was invented by French chemist Marcelin-Pierre-Eugène Berthelot (1823 - 1907) in 1864, from the French acetylene. This was derived from the chemical ending ene + acetyl, which the German chemist Justus von Liebig coined of acetic in 1839.

What Happens if You Inhale Acetylene?


Symptoms of inhalation of acetylene include dizziness, fatigue, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia and tachypnea. Exposure to a high level of acetylene will lead to a loss of consciousness and death. Acetylene is a colorless gas widely used in welding processes.

Is Acetylene Corrosive to Metal?


Acetylene is colorless in its pure form, and has a good scent. While it has several functions, acetylene is now known as being capable of inhibiting top-line corrosion usually occurring in gas pipelines. It can be sprayed as a corrosion inhibitor, owing to its high volatility.

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