Alloy Formation in Transition Metals, Properties of Alloys, Question (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Alloy Formation in Transition Metals

Alloy Formation

  • A mixture of metals or a metal with another element is commonly known as alloy. An alloy is defined by its metallic bond nature. It can be a solid solution of metals or a mixture of two or more metallic phases. We have inter-metallic compounds which are alloys that have a defined stoichiometry and structure. These alloys have a wide range of applications.
  • The alloy formation actually reduces the cost of the material and preserves the desired properties of the metal. The combination of metals enhances the property of the constituent elements and provides corrosion resistance or mechanical strength. Brass, steel and duralumin are popular alloys used these days.
  • We measure the constituents of alloys by mass. Alloys are often classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, depending on the arrangement of the atoms. They are further classified as homogeneous (which have single phase) or heterogeneous (having two or more phases) . Alloys are generally very hard and have high melting points. Steel and stainless steel are the alloys of iron along with metals such as chromium, tungsten, manganese etc.

What is an Alloy?

  • An alloy could be a mixture of metals or metals combined with one or more other elements. Elemental iron produces alloys called steel or silicon steel when it is combined with non โ€“ metallic carbon or silicon. The resulting mixture forms a substance with properties that always differ from those of the pure metals, like increased strength or hardness.
  • Alloy have a metallic bonding character. Alloys are usually classified as substitutional or interstitial alloys, relying on the atomic arrangement that forms the alloy. They will be further classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous or intermetallic.

Transition Metal

  • The transition metals are a gaggle of metals that are found within the middle of the periodic table.
  • Atomic numbers of these metals are from 21 โ€“ 30,39 โ€“ 48,57, 72 โ€“ 80,89, and 104 โ€“ 112. Many elements like have a highly debatable position within the transition series of elements. and also are classed within the series and actinide series respectively.
  • Transition metals have several properties. They are harder and fewer reactive than the alkaline โ€“ earth metal metals. They are harder than the post โ€“ transition metals. They will make colorful chemical compounds with other elements. Most of them have quite one oxidation number.

Properties of Alloys

  • Individual pure metals possess useful properties like good electrical conductivity, high strength and hardness or heat and corrosion resistance. Commercial metal alloys plan to combine these beneficial properties so on make metals more useful for particular application than any of their component elements.
  • Steel requires the proper combination of carbon and iron to supply a metal thatีšs stronger, lighter and more workable than pure iron.
  • Precise properties of latest alloys are difficult to calculate as elements donีšt combine to become a sum of the parts. They form through chemical interactions, depending upon component parts and specific production methods. As a result, much testing is required during the event of the latest metal alloys.
  • Melting temperature may be a key thing about alloying metals. Galinstan, a low โ€“ melt alloy containing gallium, tin, and indium, is liquid at temperature above , meaning its melting point is but pure gallium is quite below indium and tin.

Explanation for Alloy Formation

  • The atomic sizes of transition metals are very similar to each other and this attributes to their nature of forming alloys. As the atomic sizes are very similar, one metal can replace the other metal from its lattice and form a solid solution. This solid solution is known as alloy. This is the reason why transition metals are miscible with one another in molten state. When the molten solution cools, the corresponding alloy formation takes place.
  • There are different types of alloys which are prepared according to the required properties and the area of application. The important types and their uses are listed below:
    • Bearing alloy: These are made in order to accommodate the high pressure when there is sliding contact with other body known as rotating shaft of motor, generators or vehicles.
    • Corrosion resistant: We use noble metals in this case. These noble metals initially oxidize and act as a separation layer which prevents chemical action from any other metals. The alloys of aluminum serve as the best corrosion resistors.


What Are the Differences between Metals and Alloys?


  • Metals are pure substances that exist in elemental form whereas alloys are a mixture of two or more metals.
  • Alloys of varying compositions and components are formed to realize desirable properties that arenีšt available within the pure elemental sort of metal.
  • Metals have a fixed melting point whereas alloys have a solidification temperature range.
  • Metals are homogeneous materials that possess high hardness, strength, luster, quality etc. Pure metals have one component in its lattice whereas alloy may be a heterogeneous composition of metal and the other elements, which hold the lattice of base metal and other components in it.

What is the Purpose of Alloy Formation?


Alloys are made to:

  • Enhance hardness of a metal: An alloy is harder than its components. Pure metals are generally soft. The hardness of a metals is often enhanced by alloying it with another metal or nonmetal.
  • Enhance corrosion resistance: Alloys are more immune to corrosion than pure metals. Metals in pure form are chemically reactive and might be easily corroded by the encompassing atmospheric gases and moisture. Alloying a metal helps in increasing the inertness of the metal, which increases corrosion resistance too.
  • Modifying color: The color of pure metal is often modified by alloying it with other metals or nonmetals containing suitable color pigments.

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