Anilines – Structure, Physical Properties, Reactions, Uses (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Anilines

What Are Anilines?

  • Have you ever wondered what the cause for the blue color of the jeans you wear is? Yes, this color is due to the chemical compound naming Aniline used as a dyeing agent in the cloth industry.
  • Anilines are the organic compounds in the class of group coming in organic chemistry which are also called as aminobenzene or phenylamine. These compounds are said to be toxic in nature and also known to be one of the classes of aromatic amines.
  • These are used in a wide variety of industrial and are known to possess all the characteristics of an aromatic compound. The aniline compounds are said to have the formula wherein the amino group is supposed to be attached to the Phenyl group.

Anilines – Structure

Anilines – Structure
  • The above image shows the structure of an Aniline compound. These compounds have the formula with a phenyl group attached to the amino group as shown.
  • Aniline is in the form of a yellowish and somewhat brownish oily liquid having a musty and a fishy odor. It smells like the odor of a rotten fish. It is a kind of chemical substance which is flammable liquid and has an unpleasant odor.
  • The compound is soluble in water. It can also be colorless to light brown in color. It has a chemical formula of or and since it has 6 carbon atoms, 1 nitrogen atom and 7 hydrogen atoms in its chemical formula, it is classified under organic compounds.

Anilines – Physical Properties

The physical properties of Anilines are given below-

  • Aniline has a boiling of about and melting of about
  • The compound is slightly soluble in water and sometimes freely soluble in the chemicals such as alcohol and ether.
  • This organic compound tends to darken when exposed to air and light.
  • It is said to be weak base and on its reaction with strong acids, it forms anilinism ion -
  • The compound is said to be toxic when it gets inhaled through the air or gets absorbed into the skin as it produces nitrogen oxides which are harmful to the environment.

Anilines – Reactions

  • Oxidation Reaction- The oxidation reactions of anilines compounds lead to the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds.
  • Basicity- As it is known that anilines are weak bases. On reaction with strong acids, the compounds form ions of anilinium.
  • Acylation- In acylation reaction, anilines react readily with carboxylic acids forming amides.

The other reactions include alkylation reaction, Diazotization, hydrogenation, Wohl-Aue reaction, etc.

Anilines – Uses

Anilines are employed in various fields of science and everyday life as given below-

  • Anilines are used in the rubber industry for the processing of rubber chemicals and products such as car tyres, balloons, gloves, etc.
  • It is used as a dyeing agent in the manufacture of clothes such as jeans, etc.
  • It is employed in the production of drugs such as paracetamol, Tylenol, acetaminophen.
  • It is used as a pesticide and fungicides in the agricultural industry


What is Aniline Used For?


Aniline is used to make a wide variety of products such as polyurethane foam, agricultural chemicals, synthetic dyes, antioxidants, stabilizers for the rubber industry, herbicides, varnishes and explosives.

What is Aniline in Chemistry?


  • Aniline is an organic chemical compound, specifically a primary aromatic amine. It consists of a benzene ring attached to an amino group.
  • The amides formed from aniline are sometimes called anilides, for example is acetanilide, for which the modern name is N-phenyl ethanamide.

Which is More Basic Than Aniline?


  • Benzylamine is more basic than aniline because benzyl group is electron donating group due to + I effect.
  • So, it is able to increase the electron density of N of group.

Which is More Basic Aniline or Acetamide?


  • Since resonance stabilizes an aromatic amine more that it stabilizes its ammonium cation, the proton acceptability and thereby basic strength of amines would be less.
  • Thus, it is inferred that among the given amines such as aniline, benzylamine, and acetamide, benzylamine is more basic.

Which is More Basic Aniline or Anilinium Ion?


  • Aniline is a stronger base than o-bromoaniline.
  • Aniline form anilinium ion by accepting a proton. In general, electron-donating groups such as etc.

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