Condensation Reaction, Definition, Basic Process, Water Cycle Part 1 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Glide to success with Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Condensation Reaction

  • Condensation is the change of physical state of matter from gaseous phase into the liquid phase.
  • It is a process in which water vapour (gaseous form) in the air changes into liquid water when it touches a cooler surface. When the water in the air comes in contact with a cold surface, it condenses to form water droplets. This phenomenon is known as condensation. The reverse of condensation is evaporation reaction.
  • Condensation reaction, is reactions in which two molecules combine, usually in the presence of a catalyst, with elimination of water or some other simple molecule. The combination of two identical molecules is known as self-condensation.
  • Aldehydes, ketones, esters, alkynes (acetylenes) , and amines are among several organic compounds that combine with each other and, except for amines, among themselves to form larger molecules, many of which are useful intermediate compounds in organic syntheses.
  • Catalysts commonly used in condensation reactions include acids, bases, the cyanide ion, and complex metal ions.
Condensation Reaction

Condensation Definition

  • The in-depth definition of condensation is listed below.
    • Condensation is when a gas turns to a liquid.
    • Condensations have been defined to include those reactions in which two molecules are joined with loss of water.
    • Condensation is defined as the removal of heat from a system in such a manner that vapor is converted into liquid.
  • In the summertime, after working under the sun when we feel very thirsty. After reaching home, when we take a cold-water bottle from the refrigerator, we can notice small droplets of water outside the bottle. Where did these water droplets come in the bottle? This happens due to a phenomenon called condensation.

Basic Process of Condensation

  • Condensation of water happens when water changes its phase from gaseous state to liquid or crystal shape. At high pressure and low temperature, any gas can condense. Process of condensation can happen at any temperature as long as the pressure of the liquid state of the gas is less than the pressure of the condensing gas. The molecules in the matter slow down during the process of condensation because the heat energy is taken away, which causes a change within the three states of matter, that is it changes the matter into the solid-state.
  • A condensation reaction is a chemical reaction in which two molecules combine to form a larger one and a molecule of water. Condensation reactions involving alcohols as well as many other molecular types commonly occur in living organisms.
    • In a condensation reaction, the removed hydrogen and hydroxide come from different molecules whereas in a dehydration reaction the removed H and OH come from the same molecule.
    • In a condensation reaction, the H is removed from an electronegative atom whereas in a dehydration reaction the H is removed from a C atom.

Condensation – Water Cycle

  • Condensation is important to the water cycle as it is responsible for the formation of clouds.
  • Water vapour present in the air is responsible for the formation of clouds which ultimately comes down in the form of rain.
  • This phase change of water between solid, liquid and gas are because of the movement of water molecules.
  • In vapour form, water molecules are arranged randomly as compared to the liquid state.
  • As condensation happens, water molecules become more organized and as a result, heat is released into the atmosphere leading to a change of phase from the vapour state to the liquid state.
  • This generally occurs in the atmosphere when warm air rises up and cools down.
Water Cycle

Water Cycle

  • For condensation to take place, it is very important that the atmosphere is fully saturated (to reach maximum vapour pressure) .
  • Usually, condensation takes place around dust particles or smoke or microscopic bacteria. It plays a very significant role in the water cycle and thus helps in maintaining the water balance in the environment.
  • It is also used in various industrial processes by the scientists and engineers for separating mixtures and manufacturing pure substances.

Developed by: