Conversion of Phenol to Benzene: The Reaction Happens as Follows (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Conversion of Phenol to Benzene

  • Phenol can be converted into Benzene by a sole reduction procedure: By addition of Zinc in dust powdered form.
  • The iodoform test is a qualitative chemical test for identification of ketones and aldehydes carrying an alpha methyl group.
  • The reaction happens as follows: Since this is a reduction procedure, we can definitely say that some other compound element has been oxidize
  • The reagents used in this test are iodine and sodium hydroxide. Only methyl ketones or alcohols with this feature undergo this test.
  • This is because oxidation and reduction take simultaneously.
  • Phenol on heating with Zn dust forms benzene.

About Phenol

  • Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula
  • A white crystalline solid is volatile.
  • Molecule consists of a phenyl group bonded to a hydroxyl group.
  • Mildly acidic, it requires careful handling because it can cause chemical burns.
  • Molar mass:
  • IUPAC ID: Phenol
  • Boiling point:
  • Melting point:
  • Soluble in: Water

About Benzene

  • Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula
  • The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a planar ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each.
  • As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is classed as a hydrocarbon.
  • Formula:
  • Molar mass:
  • IUPAC ID: Benzene
  • Boiling point:
  • Density

Conversion of Phenol to Benzene

  • The reaction happens as follows
    Conversion of Phenol to Benzene

  • Though this is a reduction procedure, we can definitely say that some other compound element has been oxidized
  • This is because oxidation and reduction take simultaneously.
  • The reducing agent is Zinc
  • The oxidizing agent is Phenol
  • If we observe the basic Mechanism of the Reaction, we will be able to notice that it operates via FREE RADICLE mechanism.
  • Phenol gives out proton amd forms phenoxy anion. This anion later gives out oxygen radicle to form phenyl - free radicle.
  • While Zn reacts with the oxygen radicles to form Zinc Oxide (ZnO) .
  • Hydrogen free radicle (formed from Hydrogen ion) joins with phenyl-free radicle to form Benzene.

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