Difference between Ionic, Covalent and Metallic Bonds, Question (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Difference between Ionic, Covalent and Metallic Bonds

The attractive force which holds together the atoms or group of atoms in a chemical species is known as a chemical bond. The definition of the chemical bond as a shared electron pair could be extended to describe the dative bond and the elaboration of Lewis acid/base interactions.

Ionic, Covalent, Metallic

Ionic Bond

  • The ionic bond is the electrostatic force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions. Ionic bonds join metals to nonmetals.
  • Ionic bonding is the complete transfer of valence electron between atoms. It is a type of chemical bond. In ionic bonds, the metal loses electrons to become a positively charged cation, whereas the nonmetal accepts those electrons to become a negatively charged anion.

Covalent Bond

  • The covalent bond is also called a shared bond. These bonds join nonmetals to nonmetals.
  • A covalent bond is called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. These electron pairs are known as shared pairs or bonding pairs, and the stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms, when they share electrons, is known as covalent bonding.

Metallic Bonds

  • Metallic bonds are the chemical bonds that join metals to metals.
  • A metallic bond is the sharing of many electrons between many positive ions, It is unlike covalent or ionic bonding. Metals have low ionization energy. Therefore, the valence electrons can be delocalized throughout the metals.

Difference between Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, and Metallic Bond

To make you understand how Ionic, covalent and metallic bonds are different from each other, here are some of the major differences between Ionic, covalent and metallic bonds:

Difference between Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, and Metallic Bond
Ionic BonndCovalent BondMetallic Bond
Occurs during the transfer of electronsOccurs when 2 atoms share their valence electronsThe attraction of metal cations/atoms and delocalized electrons
Binding energy is higher than the metallic bondBinding energy is higher than the metallic bondBinding energy is less than covalent and ionic bond
Low conductivityVery low conductivityHas high electrical conductivity
Non-directional bondDirectional bondNon-directional bond
Present only in one state: solid-statePresent only in all 3 states: solid, liquid, gasesPresent only in one state: solid-state
UnmoldableUnmoldableMouldable
Higher melting pointLower melting pointHigh melting point
Non-ductileNon-ductileDuctile
Higher boiling pointLower boiling pointHigh boiling point

These were some of the important differences between Ionic, covalent and metallic bonds.

Question

What is the Difference between Ionic Metallic and Covalent Bonds?

Answer:

Covalent bonds involve sharing of electrons in the valence shell, metallic bonds are the attraction between the delocalized electrons present in the lattice of the metals, and ionic bonds are referred as the transferring and accepting of electrons from the valence shell.

Is Ionic Covalent or Metallic?

Answer:

covalent. Therefore is an ionic compound since it consists of a metal and nonmetal. The ionic compound with the formula unit is calcium chloride.

Is Metallic or Hydrogen Bonding Stronger?

Answer:

  • When it comes to metallic bonds, we do compare them in different metals. Hydrogen bond can be intramolecular or intermolecular.
  • Generally, they are weaker than intramolecular bonds. Actually ionic, covalent and metallic i.e.. , the intramolecular bonds as we call them are all considered to be strong.

Which Type of Bond is Weakest?

Answer:

Ionic bond

The ionic bond is generally the weakest of the true chemical bonds that bind atoms to atoms.

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