Draw the Resonance Structure of Nitro Benzene: Resonance Structures (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: Draw the Resonance Structure of Nitro Benzene

Resonance Structures

  • They are a set of two or more Lewis Structures that collectively describe the electronic bonding a single polyatomic species including fractional bonds and fractional charges.
  • Structures are capable of describing delocalized electrons that cannot be expressed by a single Lewis formula with an integer number of covalent bonds.
  • A molecule or ion with such delocalized electrons is represented by several contributing structures
  • Such is the case for ozone (O3) , an allotrope of oxygen with a V-shaped structure and an O – O – O angle of 117.5°
  • Benzene is a common organic solvent that was previously used in gasoline; it is no longer used for this purpose, however, because it is now known to be a carcinogen.
  • Benzene molecule () consists of a regular hexagon of carbon atoms, each of which is also bonded to a hydrogen atom.
  • Use Resonance structures to describe the bonding in benzene.
  • A Each hydrogen atom contributes 1 valence electron, and each carbon atom contributes 4 valence electrons, for a total of (6 × 1) + (6 × 4) = 30 valence electrons
  • If we place a single bonding electron pair between each pair of carbon atoms and between each carbon and a hydrogen atom, we obtain the following:
Illustration 2 for Resonance_structures

Each carbon atom in this structure has only six electrons and has a formal charge of + one, but we have used only 24 of the 30 valence electrons B If the 6 remaining electrons are uniformly distributed pair wise on alternate carbon atoms, we obtain the following

Illustration 3 for Resonance_structures
  • Each structure has alternating double and single bonds, but experimentation shows that each carbon – carbon bond in benzene is identical, with bond lengths (139.9 pm) intermediate between those typically found for a C – C single bond (154 pm) and a C = C double bond (134 pm) .
  • Existence of multiple resonance structures for aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene is often indicated by drawing either a circle or dashed lines inside the hexagon:

Resonating Structure of Nitro Benzene

  • Resonance structure is defined as any of two or more possible structures of the compound.
  • These structures have the identical geometry but have different arrangements of the paired electrons.
  • So, we can say that the resonating structure are just the way of representing the same molecule.
Illustration 4 for Resonating_structure_of_Nitro_benzene